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Table 1 List of the worst alien species for Europe, arranged according to their impact, following the generic impact scoring system (GISS, see text for details)

From: More than “100 worst” alien species in Europe

Rank Total impact sum Frequency of level 5 impact Frequency of level 4 impact Species Family Life form References Also listed in
1 38 3 4 Branta canadensis Anatidae Bird 2, 3, 8 D
2 37 3 4 Rattus norvegicus Muridae Mammal 6 D
3 34 1 4 Procambarus clarkii Cambaridae Crustacean 1, 8 D, EU*, I
4 32 2 2 Ondatra zibethicus Cricetidae Mammal 6 D, EU*
5 31 5 1 Varroa destructor Varroidae Mite 10 EU
6 31 3 0 Acacia dealbata Fabaceae Plant 1 D
7 31 2 2 Lantana camara Verbenaceae Plant 7 I
8 31 1 4 Cervus nippon Cervidae Mammal 6 D
9 30 1 3 Muntiacus reevesi Cervidae Mammal 6 EU*
10 29 2 4 Pueraria lobata var. montana Fabaceae Plant 8 EU*
11 29 1 3 Eichhornia crassipes Pontederiaceae Plant 7 EU*, I
12 28 2 2 Eriocheir sinensis Varunidae Crustacean 4 D, EU*, I
13 28 2 1 Robinia pseudoacacia Fabaceae Plant 1 D
14 28 1 3 Procambarus fallax Cambaridae Crustacean 8 EU*
15 28 0 3 Acridotheres tristis Sturnidae Bird 2, 3, 8  
16 27 2 2 Sciurus carolinensis Sciuridae Mammal 6 D, EU*, I
17 27 1 2 Myocastor coypus Echimyidae Mammal 6 D, EU*, I
18 26 2 1 Hymenosyphus pseudo-albidusa Helotiaceae Fungus 1  
19 25 3 2 Neovison vison Mustelidae Mammal 6 D
20 24 0 3 Carassius auratus Cyprinidae Fish 11  
21 24 0 2 Cortaderia selloana Poaceae Plant 1 D
22 24 0 1 Heracleum mantegazzianum Apiaceae Plant 1 D, EU*
22 24 0 1 Heracleum persicum Apiaceae Plant 8 EU*
22 24 0 1 Heracleum sosnowskyi Apiaceae Plant 8 EU*
23 23 2 1 Dreissena polymorpha Dreissenidae Mollusk 1, 4 D
24 23 1 3 Elodea canadensis Hydrocharitaceae Plant 7 D
25 23 0 4 Procyon lotor Procyonidae Mammal 6 D, EU*
26 23 0 3 Phytophthora plurivora Phytiaceae Fungus 1  
27 22 3 1 Pheidole megacephala Formicidae Insect 8  
28 22 1 3 Crassula helmsii Crassulaceae Plant 7 D
29 22 1 2 Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Ophiostomataceae Fungus 8 D, I
30 22 0 4 Anoplophora chinensis Cerambycidae Insect 10 D
31 22 0 2 Ambrosia artemisiifolia Asteraceae Plant 1 D
31 22 0 2 Axis axis Cervidae Mammal 6  
31 22 0 2 Corvus splendens Corvidae Bird 8 EU*
32 22 0 2 Phytophthora alni Phytiaceae Fungus 1  
33 22 0 1 Parthenium hysterophorus Asteraceae Plant 8 EU*
34 21 2 2 Oreochromis mossambicus Cichlidae Fish 8  
35 21 1 2 Seiridium cardinale Amphisphaeriaceae Fungus 8 D
36 21 0 3 Castor canadensis Castoridae Mammal 6  
37 21 0 2 Fallopia japonica Polygonaceae Plant 7 D, I
38 21 0 1 Opuntia ficus-indica Cactaceae Plant 1 D
39 20 1 0 Saperda candida Cerambycidae Insect 8  
40 20 0 2 Pomacea canaliculata Ampullariidae Mollusk 1, 8 I
40 20 0 2 Siganus luridus Siganidae Fish 1  
41 20 0 1 Linepithema humile Formicidae Insect 1 D, I
42 19 2 1 Arundo donax Poaceae Plant 7 I
42 19 2 1 Potamopyrgus antipodarum Hydrobiidae Mollusk 4  
43 19 1 2 Pacifastacus leniusculus Astacidae Crustacean 4 EU*
44 19 1 0 Hydrocotyle ranunculoides Araliaceae Plant 7 EU*
45 19 0 4 Ficopomatus enigmaticus Serpulidae Annelid worm 8 D
45 19 0 4 Mnemiopsis leidyi Bolinopsidae Comb jelly 1 D, I
45 19 0 4 Phytophthora cinnamomi Phytiaceae Fungus 8 D, I
46 19 0 2 Ludwigia grandifloria Onagraceae Plant 8 EU*
46 19 0 2 Ludwigia peploides Onagraceae Plant 8 EU*
47 19 0 0 Azolla filiculoides Salviniaceae Plant 1  
47 19 0 0 Lupinus polyphyllus Fabaceae Plant 1  
47 19 0 0 Rhopilema nomadica Rhizostomatidae Jellyfish 1 D
48 18 2 2 Aethina tumida Nitidulidae Insect 8  
48 18 2 2 Oreochromis niloticus Cichlidae Fish 8  
49 18 1 1 Cherax quadricarinatus Parastacidae Crustacean 8  
50 18 1 0 Eucalyptus globulus Myrtaceae Plant 7  
51 18 0 3 Alternanthera philoxeroides Amaranthaceae Plant 8 EU*
52 18 0 2 Caulerpa racemosa Caulerpaceae Alga 1 D
52 18 0 2 Lithobates catesbeianus Ranidae Amphibian 1 D, EU*, I
52 18 0 2 Rapana venosa Muricidae Mollusk 1 D
52 18 0 2 Siganus rivulatus Siganidae Fish 8 D
53 18 0 1 Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Parasitaphelenchidae Roundworm 1 D
53 18 0 1 Sicyos angulatus Cucurbitaceae Plant 1  
54 18 0 0 Paralithodes camtschaticus Lithodidae Crustacean 8 D
55 17 2 1 Oreochromis aureus Cichlidae Fish 8  
56 17 1 0 Ammotragus lervia Bovidae Mammal 6  
56 17 1 0 Threskiornis aethiopicus Threskiornithidae Bird 2, 3 D, EU*
57 17 0 3 Caulerpa taxifolia Caulerpaceae Alga 8 D, I
58 17 0 2 Anoplophora glabripennis Cerambycidae Insect 10 D, I
58 17 0 2 Paysandisia archon Castniidae Insect 8 EU
58 17 0 2 Pomacea maculata b Ampullariidae Mollusk 8  
59 17 0 1 Aedes albopictus Culicidae Insect 1 D, I
59 17 0 1 Baccharis halimifolia Asteraceae Plant 1 EU*
59 17 0 1 Harmonia axyridis Coccinellidae Insect 10 D
59 17 0 1 Prunus serotina Rosaceae Plant 7 D
59 17 0 1 Pseudorasbora parva Cyprinidae Fish 11 D, EU*
59 17 0 1 Senecio mikanioides Asteraceae Plant 7  
59 17 0 1 Solanum elaeagnifolium Solanaceae Plant 1  
59 17 0 1 Solidago canadensis Asteraceae Plant 7  
60 17 0 0 Cydalima perspectalis Crambidae Insect 1  
60 17 0 0 Oncorhynchus mykiss Salmonidae Fish 1 I
61 16 1 2 Micropterus dolomieu Centrarchidae Fish 8  
62 16 1 1 Cherax destructor Parastacidae Crustacean 8  
63 16 1 0 Dikerogammarus villosus Gammaridae Crustacean 1 D
64 16 0 3 Cabomba caroliniana Cabombaceae Plant 8 EU*
64 16 0 3 Callosciurus finlaysonii Sciuridae Mammal 6  
65 16 0 2 Arctotheca calendula Asteraceae Plant 7  
65 16 0 2 Balanus improvisus Balanidae Crustacean 8 D
65 16 0 2 Ctenopharyngodon idella Cyprinidae Fish 11  
65 16 0 2 Eucalyptus camaldulensis Myrtaceae Plant 7  
65 16 0 2 Odocoileus virginianus Cervidae Mammal 6  
65 16 0 2 Tradescantia fluminensis Commelinaceae Plant 7  
66 16 0 1 Frankliniella occidentalis Thripidae Insect 10 D
66 16 0 1 Nasua nasua Procyonidae Mammal 8 EU*
66 16 0 1 Nyctereutes procyonoides Canidae Mammal 6 D, EU*
67 16 0 0 Ambrosia trifida Asteraceae Plant 7  
67 16 0 0 Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnaceae Plant 7  
67 16 0 0 Pistia stratiotes Araceae Plant 1  
67 16 0 0 Psittacula krameri Psittacidae Bird 9 D
67 16 0 0 Tamias sibiricus Sciuridae Mammal 6 D, EU*
68 15 1 1 Orconectes virilis Astacidae Crustacean 8 EU*
68 15 1 1 Spartina anglica Poaceae Plant 8 D, I
69 15 1 0 Acacia saligna Fabaceae Plant 7  
69 15 1 0 Panonychus citri Tetranychidae Mite 10  
70 15 0 3 Carpobrotus acinaciformis Aizoaceae Plant 7  
71 15 0 2 Cotula coronopifolia Asteraceae Plant 7  
71 15 0 2 Sphagneticola trilobata c Asteraceae Plant 8  
71 15 0 2 Xenopus laevis Pipidae Amphibian 5  
72 14 1 2 Carpobrotus edulis Aizoaceae Plant 7 D
73 14 1 1 Tuta absoluta Gelechiidae Insect 10  
74 14 0 2 Homarus americanus Nephropidae Crustacean 8  
74 14 0 2 Marisa cornuarietis Ampullariidae Mollusk 8  
74 14 0 2 Saurida undosquamis Synodontidae Fish 8 D
75 13 1 1 Crassostrea gigas Ostreidae Mollusk 4 D
76 13 0 2 Alexandrium catenella Goniodomataceae Protist 8 D
76 13 0 2 Ligustrum sinense Oleaceae Plant 8  
76 13 0 2 Poecilia reticulata Poeciliidae Fish 11  
76 13 0 2 Rosa rugosa Rosaceae Plant 7 D
76 12 0 3 Campylopus introflexus Dicranaceae Plant 8 D
77 12 0 3 Hedychium gardnerianum Zingiberaceae Plant 8 D, I
78 12 0 2 Ovis orientalis Bovidae Mammal 6  
79 11 1 1 Acacia longifolia Fabaceae Plant 7  
80 11 0 2 Buddleja davidii Buddlejaceae Plant 7  
80 11 0 2 Gambusia holbrooki Poeciliidae Fish 11  
80 11 0 2 Grapholita molesta Tortricidae Insect 10  
80 11 0 2 Herpestes javanicus d Herpestidae Mammal 6 EU*, I
80 11 0 2 Liriomyza trifolii Agromyzidae Insect 8 EU
80 11 0 2 Tilapia zillii Cichlidae Fish 8  
81 10 2 0 Anguillicola crassus Anguillicolidae Roundworm 4 D
82 10 0 2 Aedes aegypti Culicidae Insect 8  
82 10 0 2 Corbicula fluminea Corbiculidae Mollusk 4 D
83 9 1 1 Ehrharta calycina Poaceae Plant 8  
84 9 0 2 Anthonomus grandis Curculionidae Insect 8 EU
84 9 0 2 Euonymus fortunei Celastraceae Plant 8  
85 8 1 0 Orconectes limosus Astacidae Crustacean 4 EU*
85 8 1 0 Oxyura jamaicensis Anatidae Bird 2 D, EU*
86 8 0 2 Bonnemaisonia hamifera Bonnemaisoniaceae Alga 8 D
86 8 0 2 Globodera pallida Heteroderidae Roundworm 8 EU
86 8 0 2 Globodera rostochiensis Heteroderidae Roundworm 8 EU
86 8 0 2 Helicoverpa armigera Noctuidae Insect 8 EU
86 8 0 2 Meloidogyne chitwoodi Meloidogynidae Roundworm 8 EU
86 8 0 2 Meloidogyne fallax Meloidogynidae Roundworm 8 EU
86 8 0 2 Opogona sacchari Tineidae Insect 8 EU
  1. The overall rank of a species results from the total impact sum (method SUM) and the frequencies of level 5 and level 4 impacts (method MAX), the highest and second highest impact levels for any of the 12 impact categories within the GISS assessment, respectively
  2. References refer to (1) González-Moreno et al. (pers. comm.), (2) Kumschick and Nentwig (2010), (3) Kumschick et al. (2016), (4) Laverty et al. (2015), (5) Measey et al. (2016), (6) Nentwig et al. (2010), (7) Rumlerovà et al. (2016), (8) this study, (9) Turbé et al. (2017), (10) Vaes-Petignat and Nentwig (2014), (11) van der Veer and Nentwig (2014). The listed species are also listed in D = DAISIE (2008); EU = EU (2010, 2014) including EC (2000) and ECDC (2012); EU* refers to species of Union concern (EU 2016, 2017); I = ISSG (2017)
  3. a Hymenosyphus fraxineus
  4. b Pomacea insularum
  5. c Wedelia trilobata
  6. d Herpestes auropunctatus