Biological Invasions

, Volume 19, Issue 10, pp 2837–2850 | Cite as

Biosecurity risk factors presented by international vessels: a statistical analysis

  • Sandy Clarke
  • Tracey Hollings
  • Nianjun Liu
  • Greg Hood
  • Andrew Robinson
Original Paper

Abstract

Invasive non-indigenous species are among the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Shipping is the principal vector for international dispersal of nonindigenous species, and shipping rates are increasing globally. The Australian government performs a range of regulatory actions to mitigate biosecurity risks associated with marine vessels, and in so doing has amassed a large volume of operational inspection data. This data can be used to quantitatively examine risk factors of vessels failing biosecurity procedures after arriving from international ports, the nature of biosecurity failures, and the types and seizure rates of biosecurity risk material (BRM). Classification trees with gradient boosting were used to assess characteristics that predict high risk vessels (n = 93,006) for carrying BRM, across 7 years of inspection data. Undeclared vessels and suspected irregular entry vessels posed the highest risk, but both were rare. Vessels that visit infrequently (<20 visits in 7 years) were common and had almost three times greater odds of failing inspection than vessels visiting frequently. On statistical analysis, yachts appeared to pose less risk than commercial vessels. In operational terms, a tentative profiled 20% fraction would contain 57% of genuine failures, and the concomitant non-screened group would contain 82% of passes. The most common reason for inspection failures was ballast water non-compliance (2.53%) and plant or insect detections (1.77%); biofouling was less common (0.13%) but testing for biofouling is not exhaustive. Invertebrate species comprised almost 90% of invasive organisms detected and seized from vessels failing biosecurity inspections. This study targets an entire transportation vector, which includes many pathways. Understanding the characteristics of transport vectors is pivotal to characterising the risk of biological invasions and applying adequate controls and prevention strategies. Our results show that biosecurity risk is not uniform on maritime pathways, so there is considerable scope for biosecurity regulators to impose risk-based intervention.

Keywords

Vessels Biosecurity Invasive species Shipping Marine Australia Risk Classification trees 

References

  1. Acosta H, Wu D, Forrest BM (2010) Fuzzy experts on recreational vessels, a risk modelling approach for marine invasions. Ecol Model 221:850–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bax N et al (2001) The control of biological invasions in the world’s oceans. Conserv Biol 15:1234–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bax N, Williamson A, Aguero M, Gonzalez E, Geeves W (2003) Marine invasive alien species: a threat to global biodiversity Marine policy 27:313–323Google Scholar
  4. Brockerhoff EG, Bain J, Kimberley M, Knížek M (2006) Interception frequency of exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and relationship with establishment in New Zealand and worldwide. Can J For Res 36:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bureau of Infrastructure Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE) (2015a) Australian sea freight 2013–14. Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  6. Bureau of Infrastructure Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE) (2015b) Yearbook 2015: Australian infrastructure statistical report. Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Canberra ACTGoogle Scholar
  7. Canyon D, Speare R, Naumann I, Winkel K (2002) Environmental and economic costs of invertebrate invasions in Australia. In: Pimentel D (ed) Biological invasions: economic and environmental cost of alien plant, animal and microbe species. CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlton JT (1996) Pattern, process, and prediction in marine invasion ecology. Biol Cons 78:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlton J, Geller J (1993) Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science (New York, NY) 261:78–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carlton J, Reid DM, van Leeuwen H (1995) The role of shipping in the introduction of nonindigenous aquatic organisms to the coastal waters of the United States (other than the Great Lakes) and an analysis of control options report to US Coast Guard, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Cope RC, Prowse TAA, Ross JV, Wittmann TA, Cassey P (2015) Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia. R Soc Open Sci. doi:10.1098/rsos.150039 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Coutts AD, Taylor MD (2004) A preliminary investigation of biosecurity risks associated with biofouling on merchant vessels in New Zealand. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 38:215–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DAWR (2017) The Vessel Compliance Scheme. http://www.agriculture.gov.au/biosecurity/avm/vessels/mars/vessel-compliance, version 6 January 2017. Accessed 29 May 2017
  14. Endresen Ø, Behrens HL, Brynestad S, Andersen AB, Skjong R (2004) Challenges in global ballast water management. Mar Pollut Bull 48:615–623CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fernández-Delgado M, Cernadas E, Barro S, Amorim D (2014) Do we need hundreds of classifiers to solve real world classification problems? J Mach Learn Res 15:3133–3181Google Scholar
  16. Floerl O, Inglis GJ (2005) Starting the invasion pathway: the interaction between source populations and human transport vectors. Biol Invasions 7:589–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Floerl O, Inglis GJ, Hayden BJ (2005) A risk-based predictive tool to prevent accidental introductions of nonindigenous marine species. Environ Manage 35:765–778CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Frey MA, Simard N, Robichaud DD, Martin JL, Therriault TW (2014) Fouling around: vessel sea-chests as a vector for the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species Management of. Biol Invasions 5:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hayes KR (2003) Biosecurity and the role of risk assessment Invasive species: vectors and management strategies. Island Press, Washington DC, pp 382–414Google Scholar
  20. Hewitt CL, Campbell ML (2007) Mechanisms for the prevention of marine bioinvasions for better biosecurity. Mar Pollut Bull 55:395–401CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hopkins GA, Forrest BM (2010) A preliminary assessment of biofouling and non-indigenous marine species associated with commercial slow-moving vessels arriving in New Zealand. Biofouling 26:613–621CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hulme PE (2009) Trade, transport and trouble: managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization. J Appl Ecol 46:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Inglis G et al. (2010) The biosecurity risks associated with biofouling on international vessels arriving in New Zealand: summary of the patterns and predictors of fouling. Technical paper. MAF Biosecurity New Zealand, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  24. International Maritime Organisation (2012) International shipping facts and figures–information resources on trade, safety, security, and the environment. International Maritime Association, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Keller RP, Drake JM, Drew MB, Lodge DM (2011) Linking environmental conditions and ship movements to estimate invasive species transport across the global shipping network. Divers Distrib 17:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lacoursière-Roussel A, Forrest BM, Guichard F, Piola RF, McKindsey CW (2012) Modeling biofouling from boat and source characteristics: a comparative study between Canada and New Zealand. Biol Invasions 14:2301–2314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leung B, Lodge DM, Finnoff D, Shogren JF, Lewis MA, Lamberti G (2002) An ounce of prevention or a pound of cure: bioeconomic risk analysis of invasive species. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 269:2407–2413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Levine JM, D’Antonio CM (2003) Forecasting biological invasions with increasing international trade. Conserv Biol 17:322–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu T-K, Tsai T-K (2011) Vessel traffic patterns in the Port of Kaohsiung and the management implications for preventing the introduction of non-indigenous aquatic species. Mar Pollut Bull 62:602–608CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. McCollin T, Brown L (2014) Native and non native marine biofouling species present on commercial vessels using Scottish dry docks and harbours. Management 5:85–96Google Scholar
  31. Miller H, Clarke S, Lane S, Lonie A, Lazaridis D, Petrovski S, Jones O (2009) Predicting customer behaviour: The University of Melbourne’s KDD Cup report. In: Journal of machine learning research: workshop and conference proceedings, pp 45–55Google Scholar
  32. Minchin D, Gollasch S (2003) Fouling and ships’ hulls: how changing circumstances and spawning events may result in the spread of exotic species. Biofouling 19:111–122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Molnar JL, Gamboa RL, Revenga C, Spalding MD (2008) Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Front Ecol Environ 6:485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Paini DR, Yemshanov D (2012) Modelling the arrival of invasive organisms via the international marine shipping network: a Khapra beetle study. PLoS ONE 7:e44589CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Pilbara Ports Authority (2016) Port of Port Headland. Port Hedland, WAGoogle Scholar
  36. Pimentel D, Lach L, Zuniga R, Morrison D (2000) Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Bioscience 50:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Piola RF, McDonald JI (2012) Marine biosecurity: The importance of awareness, support and cooperation in managing a successful incursion response. Mar Pollut Bull 64:1766–1773CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. R Core Team (2014) R: A language and environment for statistical computing R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/
  39. Ricciardi A (2001) Facilitative interactions among aquatic invaders: is an” invasional meltdown” occurring in the Great Lakes? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:2513–2525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ricciardi A, Neves RJ, Rasmussen JB (1998) Impending extinctions of North American freshwater mussels (Unionoida) following the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. J Anim Ecol 64:613–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ridgeway Gwcfo (2013) gbm: generalized boosted regression models R package version 20-8. https://cran.r-project.org/package=gbm
  42. Roberts J, Tsamenyi M (2008) International legal options for the control of biofouling on international vessels. Mar Policy 32:559–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ruesink JL, Parker IM, Groom MJ, Kareiva PM (1995) Reducing the risks of nonindigenous species introductions. BioScience 45:465–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ruiz GM, Carlton JT, Grosholz ED, Hines AH (1997) Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by non-indigenous species: mechanisms, extent, and consequences. Am Zool 37:621–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Seebens H, Gastner M, Blasius B (2013) The risk of marine bioinvasion caused by global shipping. Ecol Lett 16:782–790CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Thresher RE (1999) Diversity, impacts and options for managing invasive marine species in Australian waters Australian. J Environ Manag 6:137–148Google Scholar
  47. Vitousek PM, D’Antonio CM, Loope LL, Westbrooks R (1996) Biological invasions as global environmental change. Am Sci 84:468–478Google Scholar
  48. Williams R, Griffiths F, Van der Wal E, Kelly J (1988) Cargo vessel ballast water as a vector for the transport of non-indigenous marine species Estuarine. Coastal Shelf Sci 26:409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wonham MJ, Walton WC, Ruiz GM, Frese AM, Galil BS (2001) Going to the source: role of the invasion pathway in determining potential invaders. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 215:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Statistical Consulting CentreUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Centre of Excellence for Biosecurity Risk AnalysisUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Agriculture and Water ResourcesCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations