Skip to main content

Plant invasion science in protected areas: progress and priorities

An Erratum to this article was published on 13 June 2017

Abstract

Invasive alien species are a major problem for managers of protected areas (PAs) worldwide. Until the 1980s biological invasions were widely considered to be largely confined to anthropogenically disturbed sites and the widespread disruption of ecosystems in PAs by invasive species was not globally perceived as a major threat. A working group of the SCOPE program on biological invasions in the 1980s showed that PAs are not spared from major disruptive effects of invasions. Early research focused on descriptive studies of the extent to which PAs were invaded. More recent research explored drivers of invasion, and in the last decade much work has focused on understanding the impacts of invasions. We review the current understanding of alien plant invasions in PAs, focusing on four themes: (1) the status and macroecological patterns of alien plant invasions; (2) the threats that invasive alien plants (IAPs) pose and the impacts detected to date; (3) the current focus of invasion science in PAs; and (4) research priorities for advancing science-based management and policy. Of a sample of 59 widespread IAP species from a representative sample of 135 PAs globally, trees make up the largest proportion (32%), followed by perennial herbs (17%) and shrubs (15%). About 1857 papers have been published on alien species in PAs; 45% have focused on alien plants. Some textbook examples of impacts by IAPs originate from PAs, illustrating the severe threat to the core function of PAs. Impacts have been quantified at the species and community levels through the displacement and alteration of habitats. In some cases, native species abundance, diversity and estimated species richness have been altered, but reversed following control. At an ecosystem level, invasive plants have radically altered fire regimes in several PAs, in some cases causing regime shifts and transforming woodlands or savannas to grasslands. Invasions have also had a major impact on nutrient cycles. Protected areas are performing an increasingly important part of the global response to stem the rate of environmental change. Despite this, integrated efforts involving science, management and policy that are sufficiently resourced to generate insights on the status and dynamics of IAPs in PAs are insufficient or even lacking. Such efforts are needed to pave the way for monitoring trends, revising legislation and policies, and improving management interventions to reduce the extent and magnitude of impacts of invasive plants in PAs. While policy instruments to support management of non-native species date back to the 1930s, there has been a substantial increase in legislative support and general awareness since the early 2000s. Still, opportunities to improve research for PAs need to be created. Towards this goal, the establishment of a global PA research network could provide a unique vehicle to explore questions across species or functional groups and systems, at a scale currently beyond existing abilities. Developing an integrated global database with standardized, quantitative information could form part of such a networks function.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Alba C, Skálová H, McGregor KF, D’Antonio CD, Pyšek P (2015) Wildfires and prescribed fires differ in their effects on native and exotic species: a global meta-analysis. J Veg Sci 26:102–113. doi:10.1111/jvs.12212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Allen JA, Brown CS, Stohlgren TJ (2009) Non-native plant invasions of United States National Parks. Biol Invasions 11:2195–2207. doi:10.1007/s10530-008-9376-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Andreu J, Vilà M, Hulme PE (2009) An assessment of stakeholder perceptions and management of noxious alien plants in Spain. Environ Manage 43:1244–1255. doi:10.1007/s00267-009-9280-1

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Aplet GH, Anderson SJ, Stone CP (1991) Association between feral pig disturbance and the composition of some alien plant assemblages in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Vegetatio 95:55–62. doi:10.1007/BF00124953

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Asner GP, Vitousek PM (2005) Remote analysis of biological invasion and biogeochemical change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:4383–4386. doi:10.1073/pnas.0500823102

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Asner GP, Knapp DE, Kennedy-Bowdoin T, Jones MO, Martin RE, Boardman J, Hughes RF (2008) Invasive species detection in Hawaiian rainforests using airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR. Remote Sens Environ 112:1942–1955. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2007.11.016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Barber CV, Miller KR, Boness M (eds) (2004) Securing protected areas in the face of global change: issues and strategies. IUCN, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bargagli R (2008) Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems. Sci Total Environm 400:212–226. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.06.062

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bellard C, Cassey P, Blackburn TM (2016) Alien species as a driver of recent extinctions. Biol Lett 12:20150623. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2015.0623

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Benoit K, Nulty PP (2016) Quanteda: Quantitative Analysis of Textual Data. R package version 0.9.6-9. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=quanteda

  11. Bigalke R (1947) The adulteration of the fauna and flora of our national parks. S Afr J Sci 43:221–225

    Google Scholar 

  12. Blackburn TM, Essl F, Evans T, Hulme PE, Jeschke JM, Kühn I, Kumschick S, Marková Z, Mrugała A, Nentwig W, Pergl J, Pyšek P, Rabitsch W, Ricciardi A, Richardson DM, Sendek A, Vilà M, Wilson JRU, Winter M, Genovesi P, Bacher S (2014) A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts. PLoS Biol 12:e1001850. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001850

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. British Ecological Society (1944) Nature conservation and nature reserves. J Ecol 1:45–82

    Google Scholar 

  14. Brockie RE, Loope LL, Usher MB, Hamann O (1988) Biological invasions of island nature reserves. Biol Conserv 44:9–36. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(88)90003-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Brooks ML, D’Antonio CM, Richardson DM, Grace JB, Keeley JE, Di Tomaso JM, Hobbs RJ, Pellant M, Pyke D (2004) Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. Bioscience 54:677–688. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0677:EOIAPO]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Brundu G, Richardson DM (2016) Planted forests and invasive alien trees in Europe: a Code for managing existing and future plantings to mitigate the risk of negative impacts from invasions. Neobiota 30:5–47. doi:10.3897/neobiota.30.7015

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Butchart SHM, Walpole M, Collen B, van Strien A, Scharlemann JPW, Almond REA et al (2010) Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328:1164–1168. doi:10.1126/science.1187512

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Cadotte MW, Hamilton MA, Murray BR (2009) Phylogenetic relatedness and plant invader success across two spatial scales. Diversity Distrib 15:481–488. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2009.00560.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Catford JA, Jansson R, Nilsson C (2009) Reducing redundancy in invasion ecology by integrating hypotheses into a single theoretical framework. Diversity Distrib 15:22–40. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00521.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Center TD, Purcell MF, Pratt PD, Rayamajhi MB, Tipping PW, Wright SA, Dray FA Jr (2012) Biological control of Melaleuca quinquenervia: an Everglades invader. Bio Control 57:151–165. doi:10.1007/s10526-011-9390-6

    Google Scholar 

  21. Chew MK, Hamilton AL (2011) The rise and fall of biotic nativeness: a historical perspective. In: Richardson DM (ed) Fifty years of invasion ecology. The legacy of Charles Elton. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 39–47. doi: 10.1002/9781444329988.ch4

  22. Cole FR, Medeiros AC, Loope LL, Zuehlke WW (1992) Effects of the Argentine ant on arthropod fauna of Hawaiian high-elevation shrubland. Ecology 73:1313–1322. doi:10.2307/1940678

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Conroy MJ, Runge MC, Nichols JD, Stodola KW, Cooper RJ (2011) Conservation in the face of climate change: the roles of alternative models, monitoring, and adaptation in confronting and reducing uncertainty. Biol Conserv 144:1204–1213. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.10.019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Cowie ID, Werner PA (1993) Alien plant species invasive in Kakadu National Park, tropical Northern Australia. Biol Conserv 63:127–135. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(93)90500-Z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Cuddihy LW, Stone CP (eds) (1990) Alteration of native Hawaiian vegetation: effects of humans, their activities and introductions. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu

    Google Scholar 

  26. D’Antonio CM (2000) Fire, plant invasions, and global changes. In: Mooney HA, Hobbs RJ (eds) Invasive species in a changing world. Island Press, Washington, D.C., pp 65–93

    Google Scholar 

  27. D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM (1992) Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 23:63–87. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.23.110192.000431

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. De Poorter M (2007) Invasive alien species and protected areas: a scoping report. Part 1. Scoping the scale and nature of invasive alien species threats to protected areas, impediments to invasive alien species management and means to address those impediments. Global Invasive Species Program, Invasive Species Specialist Group. http://www.issg.org/gisp_publications_reports.htm

  29. Downey PO, Richardson DM (2016) Alien plant invasions and native plant extinctions: a six-threshold framework. AoB Plants 8:plw047. doi:10.1093/aobpla/plw047

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Drees LR (2003) National Park Service Exotic Plant Management Teams; an innovative response to harmful invasive species (USA). Aliens 17, IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group. Auckland, New Zealand http://www.issg.org/pdf/aliens_newsletters/A17.pdf

  31. Dudley N (ed) (2008) Guidelines for applying protected area management categories. IUCN, Gland. https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/PAPS-016.pdf

  32. Dumalisile L (2008) The effects of Chromolaena odorata on mammalian biodiversity in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park. Phd Thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria

  33. Ehrenfeld JG (2003) Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Ecosystems 6:503–523. doi:10.1007/s10021-002-0151-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Ehrlich P (1988) The loss of diversity: causes and consequences. In: Wilson EC, Peter FM (eds) Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 21–27

    Google Scholar 

  35. Esque TC, Schwalbe CR, Haines DF, Halvorson WL (2004) Saguaros under siege: invasive species and fire. Desert Plants 20:49e55

  36. Evans RD, Rimer R, Sperry L, Belnap J (2001) Exotic plant invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an arid grassland. Ecol Appl 11:1301–1310. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2001)011[1301:EPIAND]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Forsyth GG, van Wilgen BW (2008) The recent fire history of the Table Mountain National Park and implications for fire management. Koedoe 50:3–9. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v50i1.134

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Foxcroft LC, Rouget M, Richardson DM (2007) Risk assessment of riparian plant invasions into protected areas. Conserv Biol 21:412–421. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00673.x

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Foxcroft LC, Jarošík V, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Rouget M (2011a) Protected area boundaries as a natural filter of plant invasions from surrounding landscapes. Conserv Biol 25:400–405. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01617.x

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. Foxcroft LC, Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML (2011b) Expanding the conceptual frameworks of plant invasion ecology. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 13:89–100. doi:10.1016/j.ppees.2011.03.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) (2013a) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht

    Google Scholar 

  42. Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Pyšek P, Genovesi P (2013b) Invasive alien plants in protected areas: threats, opportunities and the way forward. In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 621–639

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  43. Foxcroft LC, Witt A, Lotter WD (2013c) Icons in peril: invasive alien plants in African protected areas. In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 117–143. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7750-7_7

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  44. Gaertner M, Biggs R, Te Beest M, Hui C, Molofsky J, Richardson DM (2014) Invasive plants as drivers of regime shifts: identifying high priority invaders that alter feedback relationships. Diversity Distrib 20:733–744. doi:10.1111/ddi.12182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Gardener MR, Trueman M, Buddenhagen C, Heleno R, Jäger H, Atkinson R, Tye A (2013) A pragmatic approach to the management of plant invasions in Galapagos. In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 349–374. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7750-7_16

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  46. Gaston KJ, Jackson SF, Cantú-Salazar L, Cruz-Piñón G (2008) The ecological performance of protected areas. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 39:93–113. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.39.110707.173529

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Genovesi P, Shine C (2004) European strategy on invasive alien species. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Habitat (Bern Convention). Nature and Environment No. 137, Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg

  48. Goodman PS (2003) Assessing management effectiveness and setting priorities in protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal. Bioscience 53:843–850. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[0843:AMEASP]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Hannah L, Midgley G, Andelman S, Araújo M, Hughes G, Martinez-Meyer E, Pearson R, Williams P (2007) Protected area needs in a changing climate. Front Ecol Environm 5:131–138. doi:10.1890/1540

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Hawkins CL, Bacher S, Essl F, Hulme PE, Jeschke JM, Kühn I, Kumschick S, Nentwig W, Pergl J, Pyšek P, Rabitsch W, Richardson DM, Vilà M, Wilson JRU, Genovesi P, Blackburn TM (2015) Framework and guidelines for implementing the proposed IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT). Diversity Distrib 21:1360–1363. doi:10.1111/ddi.12379

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Heffernan KE (1998) Managing invasive alien plants in natural areas, parks, and small woodlands. Natural heritage technical report 98-25. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage Program, Richmond, Virginia

  52. Horton JL, Neufeld HS (1998) Photosynthetic responses of Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus, a shade-tolerant, C4 grass, to variable light environments. Oecologia 114:11–19. doi:10.1007/s004420050414

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Houston DB, Schreiner EG (1995) Alien species in national parks: drawing lines in space and time. Conserv Biol 9:204–209. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.09010204.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Hui C, Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, MacFadyen S (2011) Defining optimal sampling effort for large-scale monitoring of invasive alien plants: a Bayesian method for estimating abundance and distribution. J Appl Ecol 48:768–776. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01974.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Hui C, Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, MacFadyen S (2013) A cross-scale approach for abundance estimation of invasive alien plants in a large protected area. In: Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Pyšek P, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas. Invading nature series. Springer, Berlin, pp 73–88. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7750-7_5

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  56. Hulme PE (2011) Addressing the threat to biodiversity from botanic gardens. Trends Ecol Evol 26:168–174. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2011.01.005

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Hulme PE, Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Pergl J, Schaffner U, Vilà M (2013) Bias and error in current knowledge of plant invasions impacts. Trends Ecol Evol 28:212–218. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2012.10.010

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Hulme PE, Pyšek P, Pergl J, Schaffner U, Vilà M (2014) Pragmatism required to assess impacts of invasive plants. Front Ecol Environ 11:153–154. doi:10.1890/14.WB.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. IUCN (2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. http://www.iucnredlist.org. 13 Sept 2016

  60. Jarošík V, Pyšek P, Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Rouget M, MacFadyen S (2011) Predicting incursion of plant invaders into Kruger National Park, South Africa: the interplay of general drivers and species-specific factors. PLoS ONE 6:e28711. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028711

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Knick ST, Dobkin DS, Rotenberry JT, Schroeder MA, Vander Haegen WM, Van Riper C III (2003) Teetering on the edge or too late? Conservation and research issues for avifauna of sagebrush habitats. Condor 105:611–634. doi:10.1650/7329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Koh LP, Gardner TA (2010) Conservation in human-modified landscapes. In: Sodhi NS, Ehrlich PR (eds) Conservation biology for all. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 236–258. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554232.003.0014

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  63. Kučera T, Pyšek P (1997) Invazní druhy ve flóře rezervací—současný stav znalostí u nás a ve světě. Zpr Čes Bot Společ, Praha, 32/Mater 14:81–93

  64. Kuebbing SE, Simberloff D (2015) Missing the bandwagon: nonnative species impacts still concern managers. NeoBiota 25:73–86. doi:10.3897/neobiota.25.8921

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Kueffer C, McDougall K, Alexander J, Daehler C, Edwards P, Haider S, Milbau A, Parks C, Pauchard A, Reshi ZA, Rew LJ, Schroder M, Seipel T (2013a) Plant invasions into mountain protected areas: assessment, prevention and control at multiple spatial scales. In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 89–113. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7750-7_6

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  66. Kueffer C, Pyšek P, Richardson DM (2013b) Integrative invasion science: model systems, multi-site studies, focused meta-analysis, and invasion syndromes. New Phytol 200:615–633. doi:10.1111/nph.12415

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Kumschick S, Gaertner M, Vilà M, Essl F, Jeschke JM, Pyšek P, Ricciardi A, Bacher S, Blackburn TM, Dick JTA, Evans T, Hulme PE, Kühn I, Mrugała A, Pergl J, Rabitsch W, Richardson DM, Sendek A, Winter M (2015) Ecological impacts of alien species: quantification, scope, caveats and recommendations. Bioscience 65:55–63. doi:10.1093/biosci/biu193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Latombe G, Pyšek P, Jeschke JM, Blackburn TM, Bacher S, Capinha C, Costello MJ, Fernandez M, Gregory RD, Hobern D, Hui C, Jetz W, Kumschick S, McGrannachan C, Pergl J, Roy HE, Scalera R, Squires ZE, Wilson JRU, Winter M, Genovesi P, McGeoch MA (2017) A vision for global monitoring of biological invasions. Biol Conserv (in press). doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.06.013

    Google Scholar 

  69. Leslie AJ, Spotila JR (2001) Alien plant threatens Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) breeding in Lake St. Lucia, South Africa. Biol Conserv 98:347–355. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00177-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Leverington F, Costa KL, Pavese H, Lisle A, Hockings M (2010) A global analysis of protected area management effectiveness. Environ Manage 46:685–698. doi:10.1007/s00267-010-9564-5

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Levine JM, Vilà M, D’Antonio CM, Dukes JS, Grigulis K (2003) Mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:775–781. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Lombard AT, Cowling RM, Pressey RL, Mustart PJ (1997) Reserve selection in a species-rich and fragmented landscape on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa. Conserv Biol 11:1101–1116. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96043.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Lonsdale WM (1999) Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility. Ecology 80:1522–1536. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(1999)080[1522:GPOPIA]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Lonsdale WM, Lane AM (1994) Tourist vehicles as vectors of weed seeds in Kakadu National Park, Northern Australia. Biol Conserv 69:277–283. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(94)90427-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Loope LL, Sanchez PG, Tarr PW, Loope WL, Anderson RL (1988) Biological invasions of arid land nature reserves. Biol Conserv 44:95–118. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(88)90006-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Loope LL, Hughes RF, Meyer J-Y (2013) Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical Pacific Islands, with special reference to Hawaii. In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 313–348. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7750-7_15

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  77. Macdonald IAW (1986) Invasive alien plants and their control in southern African nature reserves. In: Thomas LK (ed) Conference on science in the National Parks, vol 5., Management of exotic species in natural communitiesColorado State University, Fort Collins, pp 63–79

    Google Scholar 

  78. Macdonald IAW, Frame GW (1988) The invasion of introduced species into nature reserves in tropical savannas and dry woodlands. Biol Conserv 44:67–93. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(88)90005-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Macdonald IAW, Graber DM, DeBenedetti S, Groves RH, Fuentes ER (1988) Introduced species in nature reserves in Mediterranean-type climatic regions of the world. Biol Conserv 44:37–66. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(88)90004-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Macdonald IAW, Loope LL, Usher MB, Hamann O (1989) Wildlife conservation and the invasion of nature reserves by introduced species: a global perspective. In: Drake JA, Mooney H, di Castri F, Groves RH, Kruger FJ, Rejmánek M, Williamson M (eds) Biological invasions: a global perspective. Wiley, Chichester, pp 215–256

    Google Scholar 

  81. Magura T, Tóthmérész B, Zs Bordán (2000) Effects of nature management practice on carabid assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a non-native plantation. Biol Conserv 93:95–102. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00073-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Martin LJ, Blossey B, Ellis E (2012) Mapping where ecologists work: biases in the global distribution of terrestrial ecological observations. Front Ecol Environ 10:195–201. doi:10.1890/110154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. McGeoch MA (1998) The selection, testing and application of terrestrial insects as bioindicators. Biol Rev Cambridge Phil Soc 73:181–201. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1997.tb00029.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Meiners SJ, Pickett STA (2013) Plant invasion in protected landscapes: exception or expectation? In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 43–60. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7750-7_3

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  85. Mgobozi MP, Somers MJ, Dippenaar-Schoeman AS (2008) Spider responses to alien plant invasion: the effect of short- and long-term Chromolaena odorata invasion and management. J Appl Ecol 45:1189–1197. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664,2008.01486.X

    Google Scholar 

  86. Mooney HA, Cleland EE (2001) The evolutionary impact of invasive species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:5446–5451. doi:10.1073/pnas.091093398

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Müllerová J, Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Pergl J (2005) Aerial photographs as a tool for assessing the regional dynamics of the invasive plant species Heracleum mantegazzianum. J Appl Ecol 42:1042–1053. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01092.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Packer JG, Meyerson LA, Richardson DM, Brundu G, Allen W, Bhattarai GP, Brix H, Canavan S, Castiglione S, Cicatelli A, Čuda J, Cronin JT, Eller F, Guarino F, Guo W-H, Guo WY, Guo X, Hierro J, Lambertini C, Liu J, Lozano V, Mozdzer TJ, Skálová H, Villarreal D, Wang RQ, Pyšek P (2017) Global network for invasion science: benefits, challenges and guidelines. Biol Invasions 19 (in press). doi:10.1007/s10530-016-1302-3

  89. Pauchard A, Alaback PB (2004) Influence of elevation, land use, and landscape context on patterns of alien plant invasions along roadsides in protected areas of South-Central Chile. Conserv Biol 18:238–248. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00300.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Pickering CM, Hill W, Newsome D, Leung Y-F (2010) Comparing hiking, mountain biking and horse riding impacts on vegetation and soils in Australia and the United States of America. J Environm Manage 91:551–562. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.09.025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Pressey RL, Visconti P, Ferraro PJ (2015) Making parks make a difference: poor alignment of policy, planning and management with protected-area impact, and ways forward. Phil Trans R Soc London B 370:20140280. doi:10.1098/rstb.2014.0280

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Pyšek P, Richardson DM (2010) Invasive species, environmental change and management, and health. Ann Rev Environm Res 35:25–55. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-033009-095548

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Kučera T (2002) Patterns of invasion in temperate nature reserves. Biol Conserv 104:13–24. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00150-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Kučera T (2003) Inclusion of native and alien species in temperate nature reserves: an historical study from Central Europe. Conserv Biol 17:1414–1424. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.02248.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Pergl J, Jarošík V, Sixtová Z, Weber E (2008) Geographical and taxonomic biases in invasion ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 23:237–244. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2008.02.002

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Pyšek P, Jarošík V, Hulme PE, Pergl J, Hejda M, Schaffner U, Vilà M (2012) A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures, invading species’ traits and environment. Glob Change Biol 18:1725–1737. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02636.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Pyšek P, Genovesi P, Pergl J, Monaco A, Wild J (2013) Invasion of protected areas in Europe: an old continent facing new problems. In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 209–240. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7750-7_11

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  98. Randall JM (1996) Weed control for the preservation of biological diversity. Weed Technol 10:370–383

    Google Scholar 

  99. Randall JM (2011) Protected areas. In: Simberloff D, Rejmánek M (eds) Encyclopedia of biological invasions. University of California Press, Berkley, pp 563–567

    Google Scholar 

  100. Randall JM (2012) Objectives, priorities, and triage: lessons learned from invasive species management. In: Cole DN, Yung L (eds) Beyond naturalness: rethinking park and wilderness stewardship in an era of rapid change. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 162–178

    Google Scholar 

  101. R Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/

  102. Rhymer JM, Simberloff D (1996) Extinction by hybridization and introgression. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 27:83–109. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Richardson DM (2011) Invasion science: the roads travelled and the roads ahead. In: Richardson DM (ed) Fifty years of invasion ecology. The legacy of Charles Elton, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 397–407. doi:10.1002/9781444329988.ch29

    Google Scholar 

  104. Richardson DM, Cowling RM (1992) Why is mountain fynbos invasible and which species invade? In: van Wilgen BW, Richardson DM, Kruger FJ, van Hensbergen HJ (eds) Fire in South African mountain fynbos. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 161–181. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-76174-4_9

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  105. Robertson MP, Harris KR, Coetzee JA, Foxcroft LC, Dippenaar-Schoeman AS, van Rensburg BJ (2011) Assessing local scale impacts of Opuntia stricta (Cactaceae) invasion on beetle and spider diversity in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Afr Zool 46:205–223. doi:10.3377/004.046.0202

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Rose M, Hermanutz L (2004) Are boreal ecosystems susceptible to alien plant invasion? Evidence from protected areas. Oecologia 139:467–477. doi:10.1007/s00442-004-1527-1

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Rossiter NA, Setterfield SA, Douglas MM, Hutley LB (2003) Testing the grass-fire cycle: alien grass invasion in the tropical savannas of northern Australia. Diversity Distrib 9:169–176. doi:10.1046/j.1472-4642.2003.00020.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Rossiter-Rachor NA, Setterfield SA, Douglas MM, Hutley LB, Cook GD, Schmidt S (2009) Invasive Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) is an ecosystem transformer of nitrogen relations in Australian savanna. Ecol Appl 19:1546–1560. doi:10.1890/08-0265.1

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Roux DJ, Foxcroft LC (2011) The development and application of strategic adaptive management within South African National Parks. Koedoe 53(2). doi:10.4102/Koedoe.v53i2.1049

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. RStudio (2013) RStudio: integrated development environment for R (Version 0.96.122). Boston, MA. http://www.rstudio.org/

  111. Rundel PW, Dickie IE, Richardson DM (2014) Tree invasions into treeless areas: mechanisms and ecosystem processes. Biol Invasions 16:663–675. doi:10.1007/s10530-013-0614-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Schmitz DC, Simberloff D, Hoffstetter RH, Haller W, Sutton D (1997) The ecological impact of non-indigenous plants. In: Simberloff D, Schmitz DC, Brown TC (eds) Strangers in paradise. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 29–74

    Google Scholar 

  113. Scott DF, Versfeld DB, Lesch W (1998) Erosion and sediment yield in relation to afforestation and fire in the mountains of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. S Afr Geogr J 80:52–59. doi:10.1080/03736245.1998.9713644

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Serbesoff-King K (2003) Melaleuca in Florida: a literature review on the taxonomy, distribution, biology, ecology, economic importance and control measures. J Aquat Plant Manage 41:98–112

    Google Scholar 

  115. Setterfield SA, Douglas MM, Petty AM, Bayliss P, Ferdinands KB, Winderlich S (2013) Invasive plants in the floodplains of Australia’s Kakadu National Park. In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 167–189. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7750-7_9

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  116. Shaw JD (2013) Southern Ocean Islands invaded: conserving biodiversity in the world’s last wilderness. In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 449–470. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7750-7_20

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  117. Shelford VE (1926) Naturalist’s guide to the Americas. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore

    Google Scholar 

  118. Sheppard AW, Shaw RH, Sforza R (2006) Top 20 environmental weeds for classical biological control in Europe: a review of opportunities, regulations and other barriers to adoption. Weed Res 46:93–117. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3180.2006.00497.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Shine C, Williams N, Gündling L (2000) A guide to designing legal and institutional frameworks on alien invasive species. IUCN, Gland

    Google Scholar 

  120. Shine C, Williams N, Burhenne-Guilmin F (2005) Legal and institutional frameworks for Invasive alien species. A new synthesis. In: Mooney HA, Mack RN, McNeely JA, Neville LE, Schei PJ, Waage JK (eds) Invasive alien species. A new synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 233–284

    Google Scholar 

  121. Simberloff D, Genovesi P, Pyšek P, Campbell K (2011) Recognizing conservation success. Science 332:419. doi:10.1126/science.332.6028.419-a

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Simberloff D, Martin J-L, Genovesi P, Maris V, Wardle DA, Aronson J, Courchamp F, Galil B, García-Berthou E, Pascal M, Pyšek P, Sousa R, Tabacchi E, Vilà M (2013) Impacts of biological invasions: what’s what and the way forward. Trends Ecol Evol 28:58–66. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2012.07.013

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Stohlgren TJ, Schell LD, Vanden Heuvel B (1999) How grazing and soil quality affect native and exotic plant diversity in Rocky Mountain grasslands. Ecol Appl 9:45–64. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(1999)009[0045:HGASQA]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Strayer DL (2012) Eight questions about invasions and ecosystem functioning. Ecol Lett 15:1199–1210. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01817.x

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Tabarelli M, Pinto LP, Silva JMC, Hirota M, Bedê L (2005) Challenges and opportunities for biodiversity conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Conserv Biol 19:695–700. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00694.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Talukdar BK, Emslie R, Bist SS, Choudhury A, Ellis S, Bonal BS, Malakar MC, Talukdar BN, Barua M (2008) Rhinoceros unicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T19496A8928657. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T19496A8928657.en. 11 Dec 2015

  127. Terborgh J (1999) Requiem for nature. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  128. UNEP-WCMC (2014) Global statistics from the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), August 2014. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  129. Usher MB (1988) Biological invasions of nature reserves: a search for generalizations. Biol Conserv 44:119–135. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(88)90007-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Usher MB, Edwards M (1986) The selection of conservation areas in Antarctica: an example using the arthropod fauna of Antarctic islands. Environ Conserv 13:115–122. doi:10.1017/S0376892900036705

    Article  Google Scholar 

  131. van Kleunen M, Dawson W, Essl F, Pergl J, Winter M, Weber E, Kreft H, Weigelt P, Kartesz J, Nishino M, Antonova LA, Barcelona JF, Cabezas FJ, Cárdenas D, Cárdenas-Toro J, Castaño N, Chacón E, Chatelain C, Ebel AL, Figueiredo E, Fuentes N, Groom QJ, Henderson L, Inderjit Kupriyanov A, Masciadri S, Meerman J, Morozova O, Moser D, Nickrent DL, Patzelt A, Pelser PB, Baptiste MP, Poopath M, Schulze M, Seebens H, Shu W, Thomas J, Velayos M, Wieringa JJ, Pyšek P (2015) Global exchange and accumulation of non-native plants. Nature 525:100–103. doi:10.1038/nature14910

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  132. van Wilgen BW, Richardson DM (1985) The effects of alien shrub invasions on vegetation structure and fire behaviour in South African fynbos shrublands: a simulation study. J Appl Ecol 22:955–966. doi:10.2307/2403243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  133. van Wilgen BW, Scott DF (2001) Managing fires on the Cape Peninsula: dealing with the inevitable. J Medit Ecol 2:197–208

    Google Scholar 

  134. van Wilgen BW, Boshoff N, Smit IPJ, Solano-Fernandez S, van der Walt L (2016) A bibliometric analysis to illustrate the role of an embedded research capability in South African National Parks. Scientometrics 107:185–212. doi:10.1007/s11192-016-1879-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Vilà M, Espinar JL, Hejda M, Hulme PE, Jarošík V, Maron JL, Pergl J, Schaffner U, Sun Y, Pyšek P (2011) Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Ecol Lett 14:702–708. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01628.x

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Visser V, Langdon B, Pauchard A, Richardson DM (2014) Unlocking the potential of Google Earth as a tool in invasion science. Biol Invasions 16:513–534. doi:10.1007/s10530-013-0604-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Vitousek PM, Walker LR (1989) Biological invasion by Myrica faya in Hawaii: plant demography, nitrogen fixation, ecosystem effects. Ecol Monogr 59:247–265. doi:10.2307/1942601

    Article  Google Scholar 

  138. Vitousek PM, Walker LR, Whiteacre LD, Mueller-Dombois D, Matson PA (1987) Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii. Science 238:802–804. doi:10.1126/science.238.4828.802

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Wei T, Simko V (2016) corrplot: visualization of a correlation Matrix. R package version 0.77. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=corrplot

  140. West CJ, Thompson AM (2013) Small, dynamic and recently settled: responding to the impacts of plant invasions in the New Zealand (Aotearoa) archipelago. In: Foxcroft LC, Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas: patterns, problems and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 285–311. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7750-7_14

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  141. Wilson KA, Underwood EC, Morrison SA, Klausmeyer KR, Murdoch WW, Reyers B, Wardell-Johnson G, Marquet PA, Rundel PW, McBride MF, Pressey RL, Bode M, Hoekstra JM, Andelman S, Looker M, Rondinini C, Kareiva P, Shaw MR, Possingham HP (2007) Conserving biodiversity efficiently: what to do, where, and when. PLoS Biol 5:e223. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050223

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  142. Wilson JRU, Caplat P, Dickie I, Hui C, Maxwell BD, Nunez MA, Pauchard A, Rejmánek M, Richardson DM, Robertson MP, Spear D, Webber BL, van Wilgen BW, Zenni RD (2014) A standardized set of metrics to assess and monitor tree invasions. Biol Invasions 16:535–551. doi:10.1007/s10530-013-0605-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Yelenik SG, Stock WD, Richardson DM (2004) Ecosystem level impacts of invasive Acacia saligna in the South African fynbos. Restor Ecol 12:44–51. doi:10.1111/j.1061-2971.2004.00289.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

LCF thanks South African National Parks, the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology (CIB) and Stellenbosch University, and the National Research Foundation of South Africa (Project Numbers IFR2010041400019 and IFR160215158271). DMR thanks the CIB, the National Research Foundation of South Africa (Grant 85417) and Stellenbosch University for support. PP was supported by long-term research development project no. RVO 67985939 (The Czech Academy of Sciences project no. 14-36079G, Centre of Excellence PLADIAS (Czech Science Foundation), and acknowledges the support by Praemium Academiae award from The Czech Academy of Sciences. LCF thanks PP for hosting him at the Institute of Botany, ASCR. We thank GloNAF core team members (W. Dawson, F. Essl, H. Kreft, J. Pergl, M. van Kleunen, P. Weigelt and M. Winter) for approval to use the data on the global distribution of species recorded in PAs.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Llewellyn C. Foxcroft.

Additional information

An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1445-x.

Appendices

Appendix 1: Search terms used to extract literature records from the SCOPUS database (12/05/2016)

((((((TITLE-ABS-KEY(invasive) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY(alien) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY(non-native) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY(weed))) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY (plant)) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY(“national park”) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY(“nature reserve”) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY(“protected area”) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY(wilderness)))) AND (EXCLUDE(DOCTYPE,“er”)) = 830.

Appendix 2: Text analysis used in Figs. 4 and 5

Text analysis was carried out in R version 3.2.5 (R Core Team 2013) with RStudio version 0.99.896 (RStudio 2013) and quanteda (Benoit and Nulty 2016), an R package for quantitative analysis of textual data. Year of publication, title and abstracts were extracted for 830 alien plant papers in protected areas from Scopus for the period 1969–2015. Titles and abstracts were combined in a.csv file and years grouped by 20 eras. The.csv file was imported as a corpus {quanteda} object into R with publication year describing the article attributes as docvars {quanteda} and titles + abstracts representing the text to be analyzed. We created a document-feature matrix using dfm {quanteda}, which counts available words by article and attributes. While doing so we removed all English stopwords (very common words or adjectives that can hinder extracting keywords), numbers, punctuation marks, separators, symbols and selected words of limited value (for example, introduction, study). We also stemmed words to ensure better comparison across similar words (for example, management and manage) and removed sparse words to reduce the size of the matrix. The resulting matrix contained 2000 words across 20 eras. Using R’s corrplot package (Wei and Simko 2016) we computed a correlation of the relative frequency of words across the different eras and conducted a Pearson’s product moment correlation test at a 95% confidence level. These results were visualized using the corrplot {corrplot} command (Fig. 4).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Foxcroft, L.C., Pyšek, P., Richardson, D.M. et al. Plant invasion science in protected areas: progress and priorities. Biol Invasions 19, 1353–1378 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-016-1367-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Biological invasions
  • Conservation
  • Impact
  • Model system
  • Nature reserves