Biological Invasions

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 1127–1136 | Cite as

Young-of-the-year Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch recruit in fresh waters of remote Patagonian fjords in southern Chile (51°S)

  • Konrad Górski
  • Jorge F. González
  • Aurélien Vivancos
  • Evelyn M. Habit
  • Daniel E. Ruzzante
Invasion Note

Abstract

Salmonid invasions are currently recognized as one of the main threats to the conservation of freshwater ecosystems in Patagonia. Although a number of salmonid species have been introduced to Patagonia over the last century not all species have succeeded at establishing widespread and large populations. To date, there are no reports of established self-sustaining Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations in southern Chile despite propagule pressure from aquaculture. Here, we assessed the natal origin of young-of-the-year Coho Salmon collected from estuaries and lakes associated with remote Patagonian fjords (51°S) by examining their otolith microchemical composition. Low strontium concentrations along a line transect from the otolith edge to its core in fish collected in one lake are consistent with freshwater residence until the moment of capture. Fish caught in estuaries displayed instead, relatively high strontium concentrations only at the otolith edge. This pattern suggests very recent movement from freshwater down to the estuary. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the juvenile Coho Salmon collected in estuaries originated in the local freshwater system (lake) and provide the first ever evidence of recruitment and probable establishment of self-sustaining Coho Salmon population in Patagonia.

Keywords

Oncorhynchus kisutch Patagonia Salmon invasion Recruitment Otolith microchemistry 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank CONAF, especially Jovito Gonzalez and the crew of the Yepayek (Captains Guillermo Igor and Germán Coronado and Machinist Victor Muñoz) for their assistance in the field. Funding for this study was provided by CONICYT Chile Grant to KG (Project REDES 140187). Financial support for the fieldwork was provided by a Grant to DER from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society (Grant # 9247-13).

References

  1. Adams PB, Botsford LW, Gobalet KW et al (2007) Coho Salmon are native South of San Francisco Bay: a reexamination of North American Coho Salmon’s southern sange limit. Fisheries 32:441–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alò D, Correa C, Arias C et al (2013) Diversity of Aplochiton Fishes (Galaxiidea) and the Taxonomic Resurrection of A. marinus. PLoS ONE 8:e71577CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson MJ (2001) A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecol 26:32–46Google Scholar
  4. Arismendi I, Penaluna B, Dunham J et al (2014) Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses. Rev Fish Biol Fish 24:919–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Basulto S (2003) El largo viaje de los salmones: una crónica olvidada, propagación y cultivo de especies acuáticas en Chile. Editorial Maval Ltda, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett TR, Roni P, Denton K et al (2015) Nomads no more: early juvenile coho salmon migrants contribute to the adult return. Ecol Freshw Fish 24:264–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradley C, Sethi SA, Ashline J et al (2016) Cohort-specific variation in juvenile coho salmon habitat use. Ecol Freshw Fish. doi:10.1111/eff.12317 Google Scholar
  8. Brooks TM, Mittermeier RA, da Fonseca GAB et al (2006) Global biodiversity conservation priorities. Science 313:58–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang CW, Iizuka Y, Tzeng WN (2004) Migratory environmental history of the grey mullet Mugil cephalus as revealed by otolith Sr: Ca ratios. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 269:277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Correa C, Gross M (2008) Chinook salmon invade southern South America. Biol Invasions 10:615–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Correa C, Bravo AP, Hendry AP (2012) Reciprocal trophic niche shifts in native and invasive fish: salmonids and galaxiids in Patagonian lakes. Freshw Biol 57:1769–1781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Craig BE, Simenstad CA, Bottom DL (2014) Rearing in natural and recovering tidal wetlands enhances growth and life-history diversity of Columbia Estuary tributary coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch population. J Fish Biol 85:31–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cussac VE, Habit E, Ciancio J et al (2016) Freshwater fishes of Patagonia: conservation and fisheries. J Fish Biol. doi:10.1111/jfb.13008 Google Scholar
  14. De Los Ríos Escalante P, Gonzalez JF, Górski K et al (2016) Crustacean zooplankton assemblages in inland waters of southern Patagonia (Alacalufes National Reserve), Chile (49–51°S). Crustaceana. doi:10.1163/15685403-00003587 Google Scholar
  15. Górski K, De Gruijter C, Tana R (2015) Variation in habitat use along the freshwater–marine continuum by grey mullet Mugil cephalus at the southern limits of its distribution. J Fish Biol 87:1059–1071CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Habit E, Piedra P, Ruzzante DE et al (2010) Changes in the distribution of native fishes in response to introduced species and other anthropogenic effects. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 19:697–710Google Scholar
  17. Habit E, González J, Ortiz-Sendoval J et al (2015) Effects of salmonid invasion in rivers and lakes of Chile. Ecosistemas 24:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jackson D, Drumm A, McEvoy S et al (2015) A pan-European valuation of the extent, causes and cost of escape events from sea cage fish farming. Aquaculture 436:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jensen Ø, Dempster T, Thorstad EB et al (2010) Escapes of fishes from Norwegian sea-cage aquaculture: causes, consequences and prevention. Aquac Environ Interact 1:71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kruskal J (1964) Multidimensional scaling by optimizing goodness of fit to a nonmetric hypothesis. Psychometrika 29:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Leprieur F, Beauchard O, Blanchet S et al (2008) Fish invasions in the world’s river systems: when natural processes are blurred by human activities. PLoS Biol 6:e28CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Lever C (1996) Naturalized fishes of the world. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Lister DB, Genoe HS (1970) Stream Habitat Utilization by Cohabiting Underyearlings of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Coho (O. kisutch) Salmon in the Big Qualicum River, British Columbia. J Fish Res Board Can 27:1215–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Macdonald JI, Shelley JMG, Crook DA (2008) A method for improving the estimation of natal chemical signatures in otoliths. Trans Am Fish Soc 137:1674–1682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McArdle BH, Anderson MJ (2001) Fitting multivariate models to community data: a comment on distance-based redundancy analysis. Ecology 82:290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nielsen JL (1992) Microhabitat-specific foraging behavior, diet, and growth of Juvenile Coho Salmon. Trans Am Fish Soc 121:617–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Niklitschek EJ, Soto D, Lafon A et al (2013) Southward expansion of the Chilean salmon industry in the Patagonian Fjords: main environmental challenges. Rev Aquac 5:172–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pascual M, Macchi P, Urbanski J et al (2002) Evaluating potential effects of exotic freshwater fish from incomplete species presence–absence data. Biol Invasions 4:101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Paton C, Hellstrom J, Paul B et al (2011) Iolite: freeware for the visualisation and processing of mass spectrometric data. J Anal At Spectrom 26:2508–2518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pess GR, Montgomery DR, Steel EA et al (2002) Landscape characteristics, land use, and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) abundance, Snohomish River, Wash., USA. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59:613–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pollard WR, Hartman GF, Groot C et al (1997) Field identification of coastal juvenile salmonids. Harbour Publishing, Madeira ParkGoogle Scholar
  32. Quinn TP (2005) The behavior and ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout. University of Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  33. Quinn TP, Harris N, Anne Shaffer J et al (2013) Juvenile Coho Salmon in the Elwha River estuary prior to dam removal: seasonal occupancy, size distribution, and comparison to nearby Salt Creek. Trans Am Fish Soc 142:1058–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rieman BE, Myers DL, Nielsen RL (1994) Use of otolith microchemistry to discriminate Oncorhynchus nerka of resident and anadromous origin. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:68–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Riva Rossi CM, Pascual MA, Aedo Marchant E et al (2012) The invasion of Patagonia by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): inferences from mitochondrial DNA patterns. Genetica 140:439–453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Roni P, Bennett T, Holland R et al (2012) Factors affecting migration timing, growth, and survival of juvenile coho salmon in two coastal Washington watersheds. Trans Am Fish Soc 141:890–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rosenfeld J, Porter M, Parkinson E (2000) Habitat factors affecting the abundance and distribution of juvenile cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:766–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ruttenberg BI, Hamilton SL, Hickford MJH et al (2005) Elevated levels of trace elements in cores of otoliths and their potential for use as natural tags. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 297:273–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sandercock FK (1991) Life history of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In: Groot C, Margolis L (eds) Pacific salmon life histories. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 395–445Google Scholar
  40. Soto D, Jara F, Moreno C (2001) Escaped salmon in the inner seas, southern Chile: facing ecological and social conflicts. Ecol Appl 11:1750–1762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Soto D, Arismendi I, González J et al (2006) Southern Chile, trout and salmon country: invasion patterns and threats for native species. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 79:97–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Soto D, Arismendi I, di Prinzio C et al (2007) Establishment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Pacific basins of southern South America and its potential ecosystem implications. Revista chilena de historia natural 80:81–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steel EA, Jensen DW, Burnett KM et al (2012) Landscape characteristics and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) distributions: explaining abundance versus occupancy. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 69:457–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vargas PV, Arismendi I, Gomez-Uchida D (2015) Evaluating taxonomic homogenization of freshwater fish assemblages in Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 88:16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Villéger S, Blanchet S, Beauchard O et al (2011) Homogenization patterns of the world’s freshwater fish faunas. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:18003–18008CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Warburton M, Reid M, Stirling CH et al (2016) Validation of depth-profiling LA-ICP-MS in otolith applications. Can J Fish Aquat Sci. doi:10.1139/cjfas-2016-0063 Google Scholar
  47. Woodhead J, Hellstrom J, Paton C et al (2008) A guide to depth profiling and imaging applications of LA–ICP–MS. In: Sylvester P (ed) Laser Ablation ICP–MS in the earth sciences: current practices and outstanding issues. Mineralogical Association of Canada, Quebec City, pp 135–145Google Scholar
  48. Yuille MJ, Fisk AT, Stewart T et al (2015) Evaluation of Lake Ontario salmonid niche space overlap using stable isotopes. J Great Lakes Res 41:934–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias y Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Ambientes Sustentables (CIBAS)Universidad Católica de la Santísima ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  2. 2.Departamento de Sistemas Acuáticos, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Centro EULA – ChileUniversidad de ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  4. 4.Department of BiologyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations