Biological Invasions

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 723–735 | Cite as

Interspecific competition between alien Pallas’s squirrels and Eurasian red squirrels reduces density of the native species

  • Maria Vittoria Mazzamuto
  • Francesco Bisi
  • Lucas A. Wauters
  • Damiano G. Preatoni
  • Adriano Martinoli
Original Paper


When alien species introduced into a new environment have a strong niche overlap with ecologically similar native species, interspecific competition can cause a decrease in abundance and distribution of native species. Pallas’s squirrel (Callosciurus erythraeus) was introduced in Northern Italy where it currently co-occurs with native Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). The alien species is known for its invasiveness but so far negative effects of Pallas’s squirrels on native tree squirrels have not been demonstrated. Here, we compare demographic parameters of red squirrel populations between sites without (red-only sites) and with (red-Pallas’s sites) C. erythraeus and present results of trapping and removal of Pallas’s squirrel and its effects on red squirrel population dynamics. The native species was patchily distributed and absent in many trapping sites occupied by the Pallas’s squirrel. Red squirrels occurred at much lower densities and showed reduced adult survival in areas of co-occurrence than in red-only sites, but there were no differences in reproductive rate. Removing invasive squirrels throughout the study period resulted in re-colonisation by the native species only in some trapping sites, and several alternatives to explain the lack of a marked increase in population size are discussed. This study is the first to provide evidence that presence of Pallas’s squirrel reduces viability of local red squirrel populations.


Callosciurus erythraeus Eradication Population density Replacement competition Robust design models Unbalanced study design 



Authors thank Regione Lombardia, Provincia di Varese, Parco Pineta and all the students involved in the survey. A special thanks to A. Molinari, M. Morandini, G. Zardoni and F. Santicchia. We would like to thank both reviewers for their insightful comments on the paper, as these comments led us to an improvement of the work. This work was supported by the EU and realized under the LIFE09 NAT/IT/000095 EC-SQUARE Project. This is paper n. 12 of the ECSQUARE project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical standards

All appropriate ethics for the animal welfare were followed during the research in accordance with EC and AVMA guidelines (Close et al. 1996, 1997; Leary et al. 2013).

Supplementary material

10530_2016_1310_MOESM1_ESM.doc (53 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 53 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Vittoria Mazzamuto
    • 1
  • Francesco Bisi
    • 1
  • Lucas A. Wauters
    • 1
  • Damiano G. Preatoni
    • 1
  • Adriano Martinoli
    • 1
  1. 1.Environment Analysis and Management Unit, Guido Tosi Research Group, Department of Theoretical and Applied SciencesUniversità degli Studi dell’InsubriaVareseItaly

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