Biological Invasions

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 179–195 | Cite as

Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) presence and proliferation on former surface coal mines in Eastern USA

  • Adam J. Oliphant
  • R. H. Wynne
  • C. E. ZipperEmail author
  • W. M. Ford
  • P. F. Donovan
  • Jing Li
Original Paper


Invasive plants threaten native plant communities. Surface coal mines in the Appalachian Mountains are among the most disturbed landscapes in North America, but information about land cover characteristics of Appalachian mined lands is lacking. The invasive shrub autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) occurs on these sites and interferes with ecosystem recovery by outcompeting native trees, thus inhibiting re-establishment of the native woody-plant community. We analyzed Landsat 8 satellite imagery to describe autumn olive’s distribution on post-mined lands in southwestern Virginia within the Appalachian coalfield. Eight images from April 2013 through January 2015 served as input data. Calibration and validation data obtained from high-resolution aerial imagery were used to develop a land cover classification model that identified areas where autumn olive was a primary component of land cover. Results indicate that autumn olive cover was sufficiently dense to enable detection on approximately 12.6 % of post-mined lands within the study area. The classified map had user’s and producer’s accuracies of 85.3 and 78.6 %, respectively, for the autumn olive coverage class. Overall accuracy was assessed in reference to an independent validation dataset at 96.8 %. Autumn olive was detected more frequently on mines disturbed prior to 2003, the last year of known plantings, than on lands disturbed by more recent mining. These results indicate that autumn olive growing on reclaimed coal mines in Virginia and elsewhere in eastern USA can be mapped using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager imagery; and that autumn olive occurrence is a significant landscape vegetation feature on former surface coal mines in the southwestern Virginia segment of the Appalachian coalfield.


Afforestation Ecosystem recovery Landsat Alien plants Exotic plants Invasive plants Remote sensing Forestry OLI 



We thank the Virginia Department of Forestry and Working Lands LLC for providing the funding for this study. Additional support was provided by US Geological Survey Grant G12PC00073, “Making Multitemporal Work”, Richard Davis, Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, provided invaluable advice and assistance including identification of field sites with autumn olive coverage. Funding for C.E. Zipper’s participation was provided in part by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and the Hatch Program of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Funding for R.H. Wynne’s participation was provided in part by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and the McIntire-Stennis Program of NIFA, USDA (Project Number 1007054, “Detecting and Forecasting the Consequences of Subtle and Gross Disturbance on Forest Carbon Cycling”). The use of any trade, product or firm names does not imply endorsement by the U.S. government.


  1. Allan PF, Steiner WW (1965) Autumn olive for wildlife and other conservation uses. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Leaflet No. 458Google Scholar
  2. Angel P, Davis V, Burger JA, Graves D, Zipper CE (2005) The Appalachian regional reforestation initiative. U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Department of Interior. Forest Reclamation Advisory No. 1Google Scholar
  3. Ashton IW, Hyatt LA, Howe KM, Gurevitch J, Lerdau MT (2005) Invasive species accelerate decomposition and litter nitrogen loss in a mixed deciduous forest. Ecol Appl 15:1263–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baer SG, Church JM, Williard KW, Groninger JW (2006) Changes in intrasystem N cycling from N2-fixing shrub encroachment in grassland: multiple positive feedbacks. Agric Ecosyst Environ 115:174–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker RH, Zmijewski KA, Crail T (2013) Seeing the forest for the invasives: mapping buckthorn in the oak openings. Biol Invasions 15:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Black BL, Fordham IM, Perkins-Veazie P (2005) Autumnberry (Elaeagnus umbellata): a potential cash crop. J Am Pomol Soc 59:125–134Google Scholar
  7. Bobbe T, Finco MV, Quayle B, Lanmon K, Sohlberg R, Parsons A (2001) Field measurements for the training and validation of burn severity maps from spaceborne, remotely sensed imagery. USDI Joint Fire Science Program Final Project Report JFSP RFP 2Google Scholar
  8. Bonilla NO, Pringle EG (2015) Contagious seed dispersal and the spread of avian-dispersed exotic plants. Biol Invasions 17:3409–3418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradley BA, Mustard JF (2006) Characterizing the landscape dynamics of an invasive plant and risk of invasion using remote sensing. Ecol Appl 16:1132–1147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brenner FJ (1979) Soil and plant characteristics as determining factors in site selection for surface coal mine reclamation. Environ Geochem Health 1:39–44Google Scholar
  11. Brusa A, Bunker DE (2014) Increasing the precision of canopy closure estimates from hemispherical photography: blue channel analysis and under-exposure. Agric For Meteorol 195:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brym ZT, Lake JK, Allen D, Ostling A (2011) Plant functional traits suggest novel ecological strategy for an invasive shrub in an understory woody plant community. J Appl Ecol 48:1098–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Budreski KA, Wynne RH, Browder JO, Campbell JB (2007) Comparison of segment and pixel-based non-parametric land cover classification in the Brazilian Amazon using multitemporal Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 73:813–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burger J, Graves D, Angel P, Davis V, Zipper C (2005) The forestry reclamation approach. Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, US Office of Surface Mining. Forest Reclamation Advisory Number 2Google Scholar
  15. Byrd SM, Cavender ND, Peugh CM, Bauman JM (2012) Sustainable landscapes: evaluating strategies for controlling autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) on reclaimed surface mineland at the wilds conservation center in southeastern Ohio. J Am Soc Min Reclam 1:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell JB, Wynne RH (2011) Introduction to remote sensing, 5th edn. The Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Carter CT, Ungar IA (2002) Aboveground vegetation, seed bank and soil analysis of a 31-year-old forest restoration on coal mine spoil in southeastern Ohio. Am Midl Nat 147:44–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cavender N, Byrd S, Bechtoldt CL, Bauman JM (2014) Vegetation communities of a coal reclamation site in southeastern Ohio. Northeast Nat 21:31–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen C, Liaw A, Breiman L (2004) Using random forest to learn imbalanced data. Dept. Statistics, University of California, Berkeley, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  20. Congalton RG (1991) A review of assessing the accuracy of classifications of remotely sensed data. Remote Sens Environ 37:35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Congalton RG, Green K (2008) Assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data: principles and practices, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drummond MA, Loveland TR (2010) Land-use pressure and a transition to forest-cover loss in the eastern United States. Bioscience 60:286–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ehrenfeld JG, Scott N (2001) Invasive species and the soil: effects on organisms and ecosystem processes. Ecol Appl 11:1259–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eliason EM, McEwen AS (1990) Adaptive box filters for removal of random noise from digital images. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 56:453–458Google Scholar
  25. Evans DM, Zipper CE, Burger JA, Strahm BD, Villamagna AM (2013) Reforestation practice for enhancement of ecosystem services on a compacted surface mine: path toward ecosystem recovery. Ecol Eng 51:16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fenneman NM (1938) Physiography of eastern United States. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Fields-Johnson CW, Zipper CE, Burger JA, Evans DM (2012) Forest restoration on steep slopes after coal surface mining in Appalachian USA: soil grading and seeding effects. For Ecol Manag 270:126–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fowler LJ, Fowler DK, Thomas JE (1982) Dispersal of autumn olive seeds by foxes on coal surface mines in east Tennessee [Elaeagnus umbellata]. J Tenn Acad Sci 57:83–85Google Scholar
  29. Fridley JD (2012) Extended leaf phenology and the autumn niche in deciduous forest invasions. Nature 485:359–362CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fridley JD, Craddock A (2015) Contrasting growth phenology of native and invasive forest shrubs mediated by genome size. New Phytol 207:659–668CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fritz KM, Fulton S, Johnson BR, Barton CD, Jack JD, Word DA, Burke RA (2010) Structural and functional characteristics of natural and constructed channels draining a reclaimed mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mine. J N Am Benthol Soc 29:673–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gavier-Pizarro GI, Kuemmerle T, Hoyos LE, Stewart SI, Huebner CD, Keuler NS, Radeloff VC (2012) Monitoring the invasion of an exotic tree (Ligustrum lucidum) from 1983 to 2006 with Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite data and support vector machines in Córdoba, Argentina. Remote Sens Environ 122:134–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gesch D, Oimoen M, Greenlee S, Nelson C, Steuck M, Tyler D (2002) The national elevation dataset. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 68:5–32Google Scholar
  34. Gosper CR, Stansbury CD, Vivian-Smith G (2005) Seed dispersal of fleshy-fruited invasive plants by birds: contributing factors and management options. Divers Distrib 11:549–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hardin PJ (1994) Parametric and nearest-neighbor methods for hybrid classification: a comparison of pixel assignment accuracy. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 60:1439–1448Google Scholar
  36. Heffernan K, Engle E, Richardson C (2014) Virginia invasive plant species list. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Document 14-11. RichmondGoogle Scholar
  37. Hobbs RJ (2000) Land-use changes and invasions. In: Mooney HA, Hobbs RJ (eds) Invasive species in a changing world. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 55–64Google Scholar
  38. Hobbs RJ, Huenneke LF (1992) Disturbance, diversity, and invasion: implications for conservation. Conserv Biol 6:324–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Homer CG, Dewitz JA, Yang L, Jin S, Danielson P, Xian G, Coulston J, Herold ND, Wickham JD, Megown K (2015) Completion of the 2011 national land cover database for the conterminous United States: representing a decade of land cover change information. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 81:345–354Google Scholar
  40. Honu YA, Gibson DJ (2008) Patterns of invasion: trends in abundance of understory vegetation, seed rain, and seed bank from forest edge to interior. Nat Areas J 28:228–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoyos LE, Gavier-Pizarro GI, Kuemmerle T, Bucher EH, Radeloff VC, Tecco PA (2010) Invasion of glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum) and native forest loss in the Sierras Chicas of Córdoba, Argentina. Biol Invasions 12:3261–3275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huang C, Goward SN, Masek JG, Thomas N, Zhu Z, Vogelmann JE (2010) An automated approach for reconstructing recent forest disturbance history using dense Landsat time series stacks. Remote Sens Environ 114:183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Huete AR (1988) A soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Remote Sens Environ 25:295–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huete AR, Liu H, Van Leeuwen WJ (1997) The use of vegetation indices in forested regions: issues of linearity and saturation. In: Proceedings of IGARSS’97—International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Seminar. ESA Publications, Noordwijk, pp 1966–1968Google Scholar
  45. Jenkerson C (2013) User guide: earth resources observation and science (EROS) center science processing architecture (ESPA) on demand interface. U.S. Geological Survey Edition 1.4, Reston, VAGoogle Scholar
  46. Jin S, Yang L, Danielson P, Homer C, Fry J, Xian G (2013) A comprehensive change detection method for updating the national land cover database to circa 2011. Remote Sens Environ 132:159–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jo I, Fridley JD, Frank DA (2015) Linking above- and belowground resource use strategies for native and invasive species of temperate deciduous forests. Biol Invasions 17:1545–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jonckheere I, Fleck S, Nackaerts K, Muys B, Coppin P, Weiss M, Baret F (2004) Review of methods for in situ leaf area index determination: part I. Theories, sensors and hemispherical photography. Agric For Meteorol 121:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Key CH, Benson NC (1999) Measuring and remote sensing of burn severity. In: Proceedings Joint Fire Science Conference and Workshop, vol. II, Moscow, ID pp 284Google Scholar
  50. Lafleur NE, Rubega MA, Elphick CS (2007) Invasive fruits, novel foods, and choice: an investigation of European starling and American robin frugivory. Wilson J Ornithol 119:429–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lemke D, Schweitzer CJ, Tadesse W, Wang Y, Brown JA (2013) Geospatial assessment of invasive plants on reclaimed mines in Alabama. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 6:401–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Li RS, Daniels WL (1994) Nitrogen accumulation and form over time in young mine soils. J Environ Qual 23:166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Li J, Donovan PF, Zipper CE, Wynne RH, Oliphant AJ (2015a) Mining disturbances in Virginia’s Southwestern Coalfield, 1984–2011. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg. doi: 10.7294/W47P8W97 Google Scholar
  54. Li J, Li S, Zipper CE, Donovan PF, Wynne RW, Oliphant AO, Xia Q (2015b) Character analysis of mining disturbance and reclamation trajectory in surface coal-mine area by time-series NDVI. Trans Chin Soc Agric Eng 31:251–257 [in Chinese] Google Scholar
  55. Li J, Zipper CE, Donovan PF, Wynne RH, Oliphant AJ (2015c) Reconstructing disturbance history for an intensively mined region by time-series analysis of Landsat imagery. Environ Mon Assess 187:557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liaw A, Wiener M (2002) Classification and regression by randomForest. R News 2:18–22Google Scholar
  57. Miller JH, Manning ST, Enloe SF (2010) A management guide for invasive plants in southern forests. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SRS-131, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC pp 120Google Scholar
  58. Miller JH, Lemke D, Coulston J. (2013) The invasion of Southern forests by nonnative plants: Current and future occupation, with impacts, management strategies, and mitigation approaches. In The Southern forest futures project: Technical report. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SRS-178, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC pp 397–456Google Scholar
  59. Moore MR, Buckley DS, Klingeman WE, Saxton AM (2013) Distribution and growth of autumn olive in a managed forest landscape. For Ecol Manag 310:589–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Muncy BL, Price SJ, Bonner SJ, Barton CD (2014) Mountaintop removal mining reduces stream salamander occupancy and richness in southeastern Kentucky (USA). Biol Conserv 180:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (2015) Landsat Science. Accessed 21 Dec 2015
  62. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (2015) 1981–2010 Normals for Big Stone Gap VA, US. U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. National Climate Data Center. Accessed 21 July 2015
  63. Nickelson JB, Holzmueller EJ, Groninger JW, Lesmeister DB (2015) Previous land use and invasive species impacts on long-term afforestation success. Forests 6:3123–3135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nobis M, Hunziker U (2005) Automatic thresholding for hemispherical canopy-photographs based on edge detection. Agric For Meteorol 128:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Oliphant AJ (2015) Mapping Elaeagnus umbellata on Surface Coal Mines using Multitemporal Landsat Imagery. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Tech, BlacksburgGoogle Scholar
  66. Oliphant AJ, Li J, Wynne RH, Donovan PF, Zipper CE (2014) Identifying woody vegetation on coal surface mines using phenological indicators with multitemporal Landsat imagery. ISPRS-Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spatial Inf Sci 1:339–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Orr SP, Rudgers JA, Clay K (2005) Invasive plants can inhibit native tree seedlings: testing potential allelopathic mechanisms. Plant Ecol 181:153–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Parsons S, Spader WE (1901) How to plan the home grounds. Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Pejchar L, Mooney HA (2009) Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends Ecol Evol 24:497–504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Peterson EB (2005) Estimating cover of an invasive grass (Bromus tectorum) using tobit regression and phenology derived from two dates of Landsat ETM + data. Int J Rem Sens 26:2491–2507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pyšek P, Richardson DM (2008) Traits associated with invasiveness in alien plants: where do we stand? In: Nentwig W (ed) Biol invasions. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 97–125Google Scholar
  72. Qi J, Al Chehbouni, Huete AR, Kerr YH, Sorooshian S (1994) A modified soil adjusted vegetation index. Remote Sens Environ 48:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. R-Core-Team (2014) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Accessed 21 May 2015
  74. Resasco J, Hale AN, Henry MC, Gorchov DL (2007) Detecting an invasive shrub in a deciduous forest understory using late-fall Landsat sensor imagery. Int J Remote Sens 28:3739–3745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ricketts TH, Dinerstein E, Olson DM, Loucks CJ, Eichbaum W, DellaSalla D, Kavanagh K, Hedao P, Hurley P, Carney K, Abell R, Walters S (1999) Terrestrial ecoregions of North America: a conservation assessment. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  76. Riitters K, Wickham J, O’Neill R, Jones B, Smith E (2000) Globalscale patterns of forest fragmentation. Conserv Ecol 4.
  77. Rodriguez-Galiano VF, Ghimire B, Rogan J, Chica-Olmo M, Rigol-Sanchez JP (2012) An assessment of the effectiveness of a random forest classifier for land-cover classification. ISPRS J Photogram Remote Sens 67:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rouse J Jr (1973) Monitoring the vernal advancement and retrogradation (green wave effect) of natural vegetation. Remote Sensing Center. Texas A&M Univ, College StationGoogle Scholar
  79. Sayler KL (2008) Land cover trends: central Appalachians. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, Washington, 2008.
  80. Shea K, Chesson P (2002) Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 17:170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Simmons J, Currie W, Eshleman KN, Kuers K, Monteleone S, Negley TL, Pohlad B, Thomas C (2008) Forest to reclaimed land use change leads to altered ecosystem structure and function. Ecol Appl 18:104–118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sinclair J (ed)(1969) Reclamation after Surface Mining. In: Quarrying opencast and alluvial mining. Elsevier Publishing, Amsterdam, pp 318–327Google Scholar
  83. Skousen JG, Johnson CD, Garbutt K (1994) Natural revegetation of 15 abandoned mine land sites in West Virginia. J Environ Qual 23:1224–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Southeast Exotic Plant Pests Council (SE-EPPC), 2008. Invasive Plants of the Southeast.
  85. Swearingen J, Slattery B, Reshetiloff K, Zwicker S (2010) Plant invaders of mid-atlantic natural areas, 4th edn. National Park Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  86. Thimonier A, Sedivy I, Schleppi P (2010) Estimating leaf area index in different types of mature forest stands in Switzerland: a comparison of methods. Eur J For Res 129:543–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Thompson RL, Vogel WG, Taylor DD (1984) Vegetation and flora of a coal surface-mined area in Laurel County, Kentucky. Castanea 49:111–126Google Scholar
  88. Townsend PA, Helmers DP, Kingdon CC, McNeil BE, de Beurs KM, Eshleman KN (2009) Changes in the extent of surface mining and reclamation in the Central Appalachians detected using a 1976–2006 Landsat time series. Remote Sens Environ 113:62–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2014). NAIP imagery. Farm Service Agency
  90. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2015). Plants database. Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. autumn olive. Accessed Dec 2015
  91. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2016). Plants database. Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Russian olive. Accessed May 2016
  92. U.S. Geologic Survey (2015) Product Guide: Landsat Surface Reflectance-Derived Spectral Indices Version 2.7. U.S. Geological Survey, EROS Data Center. Accessed 21 July 2015
  93. US Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (US OSMRE) (2015). Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative.
  94. Vila M, Ibanez I (2011) Plant invasions in the landscape. Landsc Ecol 26:461–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wickham JD, Riitters KH, Wade TG, Coan M, Homer C (2007) The effect of Appalachian mountaintop mining on interior forest. Landsc Ecol 22:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wilfong BN, Gorchov DL, Henry MC (2009) Detecting an invasive shrub in deciduous forest understories using remote sensing. Weed Sci 57:512–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Williams SC, Ward JS (2006) Exotic seed dispersal by white-tailed deer in southern Connecticut. Nat Areas J 26:383–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wilson EH, Sader SA (2002) Detection of forest harvest type using multiple dates of Landsat TM imagery. Remote Sens Environ 80:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. With KA (2002) The landscape ecology of invasive spread. Conserv Biol 16:1192–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wolter PT, Mladenoff DJ, Host GE, Crow TR (1995) Improved forest classification in the Northern Lake States using multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 61:1129–1144Google Scholar
  101. Yancey M (2009) Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata). Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication 420-321Google Scholar
  102. Zipper CE, Burger JA, McGrath JM, Rodrigue JA, Holtzman GI (2011a) Forest restoration potentials of coal-mined lands in the eastern United States. J Environ Qual 40:1567–1577CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Zipper CE, Burger JA, Skousen JG, Angel PN, Barton CD, Davis V, Franklin J (2011b) Restoring forests and associated ecosystem services on Appalachian coal surface mines. Environ Manage 47:751–765CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Zipper CE, Klopf SK, Krenz RJ, Evans DM, Burger JA, Fields-Johnson CW (2016) Establishing hardwood forests on Appalachian mine sites using the forestry reclamation approach. In: Powell river project research and education program reports. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, pp 52–72Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adam J. Oliphant
    • 1
  • R. H. Wynne
    • 2
  • C. E. Zipper
    • 3
    Email author
  • W. M. Ford
    • 4
  • P. F. Donovan
    • 3
  • Jing Li
    • 5
  1. 1.Western Geographic Science CenterU.S. Geological SurveyFlagstaffUSA
  2. 2.Forest Resources and Environmental ConservationVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  3. 3.Crop and Soil Environmental SciencesVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  4. 4.Virginia Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitU.S. Geological SurveyBlacksburgUSA
  5. 5.China University of Mining and TechnologyBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations