Biological Invasions

, Volume 18, Issue 12, pp 3547–3560 | Cite as

Drivers of Central European urban land snail faunas: the role of climate and local species pool in the representation of native and non-native species

  • Michal Horsák
  • Tomáš Čejka
  • Lucie Juřičková
  • Vollrath Wiese
  • Veronika Horsáková
  • Zdeňka Lososová
Original Paper


The importance of macroclimate and dispersal limitation in the broad-scale variation of European urban land snail assemblages is likely to differ between native and non-native species because of the southern origin of many non-native snails, often spread by humans. We sampled land snails in each of 32 European cities and compiled from the literature a list of land snail species reported from the surroundings of each city. To quantify the predictive power of climate and local species pools, beta-sim dissimilarity matrices of both native and non-native species were explored using MDS and RDA ordination methods, Mantel tests with bootstrapping of each dataset, and multivariate homogeneity analysis of group variances. We observed no significant relation between the numbers of non-native species found in the cities and their surroundings (p > 0.133), while the percentage of native species in the cities derived from their local species pools decreased significantly with the increasing species richness of local faunas (rS = −0.75, p < 0.001). Assemblage variation of urban native species was explained mostly by the difference between mean January and July temperatures (21.3 %), with the major role of July temperature (18.0 %). In contrast, variation of non-native species assemblages was mainly explained by January temperature (19.9 %). The congruence in faunal similarities between the cities and the surrounding areas was higher in native (r = 0.46, p < 0.001) than in non-native species (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). Overall native faunas were significantly more homogeneous than the non-native faunas. Our results suggest that recent climate warming may foster geographical expansions of many non-native land snail species as their distributions are controlled mainly by January temperature.


Assemblage similarity Europe Large cities Human-driven dispersal Land snails Local species pool 



We thank Milan Chytrý, Jiří Danihelka, Karel Fajmon, Tomáš Juřička, Deana Láníková, Stanislav Němejc, Zdenka Preislerová and Lubomír Tichý for their help in the field. Robert A. D. Cameron, Jeffrey C. Nekola and an anonymous referee made valuable comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. This work was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (Project 14-10723S).

Supplementary material

10530_2016_1247_MOESM1_ESM.doc (130 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 129 kb)
10530_2016_1247_MOESM2_ESM.doc (1 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 1041 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michal Horsák
    • 1
  • Tomáš Čejka
    • 2
  • Lucie Juřičková
    • 3
  • Vollrath Wiese
    • 4
  • Veronika Horsáková
    • 1
  • Zdeňka Lososová
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany and ZoologyMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Institute of BotanySlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyCharles University in PraguePragueCzech Republic
  4. 4.Haus der Natur – CismarCismarGermany

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