Biological Invasions

, Volume 18, Issue 12, pp 3495–3512 | Cite as

Native richness and species level trophic traits predict establishment of alien freshwater fishes

  • J. H. Liew
  • L. R. Carrasco
  • H. H. Tan
  • D. C. J. Yeo
Original Article

Abstract

Community level ecological traits are thought to affect invasibility as more diverse communities with complex trophic interactions may be associated with greater biotic resistance. Elucidation of the nature of this relationship is often hampered by difficulties in characterising food webs, particularly where field data are lacking. We attempted to overcome this by coupling food web modelling with information-theoretic analysis of the modelled webs. In addition, we also investigated the possibility that species level trends in trophic traits of established aliens might reflect exploitation of empty niches. We constructed hypothetical food webs of 26 natural and artificial lentic habitats from a data set consisting of 370 fish species representing 71 families. Using these food webs, we investigated associations at the community level between food web traits and network topology and number of alien fish species using an information-theoretic approach based on a set of competing a priori hypotheses. At the species level, we similarly tested for trends in trophic traits of established alien fishes using the information-theoretic approach in addition to nMDS of diet data. We found that native species richness in a community was the most important determinant of the number of alien fish taxa, displaying an inverse relationship. Our data also show that alien fish generally feed lower down the food web. Our findings suggest that the biotic resistance hypothesis, though scale dependent, can result in observable effects in animal communities. Moreover, we also found that the ability to exploit low energy yield food sources could favour the establishment of alien species via avoidance of resistive forces from native taxa.

Keywords

Biotic resistance Aquatic food webs Biological invasion Invasibility Competitive exclusion 

Supplementary material

10530_2016_1241_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (67 kb)
Appendix AList of lentic habitats reviewed (PDF 66 kb)
10530_2016_1241_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (174 kb)
Appendix BFood web traits of the habitats examined (PDF 173 kb)
10530_2016_1241_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (803 kb)
Appendix CList of fish taxa analysed in the study and literature consulted for species specific ecological and dietary information (PDF 802 kb)
10530_2016_1241_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (142 kb)
Appendix DConstruction of food web matrices (PDF 141 kb)
10530_2016_1241_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (155 kb)
Appendix EModels tested for community level information theoretic approach (PDF 154 kb)
10530_2016_1241_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (138 kb)
Appendix FModels tested for species level information theoretic approach (PDF 138 kb)

References

  1. Akin S, Winemiller KO (2008) Original article body size and trophic position in a temperate estuarine food web. Acta Oecologia 33:144–153Google Scholar
  2. Ali AB (1996) Chenderoh Reservoir, Malaysia: the conservation and wise use of fish biodiversity in a small flow-through tropical reservoir. Lakes Reserv Res Manag 2:17–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aquino LMG, Tango JM, Canoy RJC et al (2011) DNA barcoding of fishes of Laguna de Bay, Philippines. Mitochondrial DNA 22:143–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arthur RI, Lorenzen K, Homekingkeo P et al (2010) Assessing impacts of introduced aquaculture species on native fish communities: Nile tilapia and major carps in SE Asian freshwaters. Aquaculture 299:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baiser B, Russell GJ, Lockwood JL (2010) Connectance determines invasion success via trophic interactions in model food webs. OIKOS 119:1970–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balayut EA (1999) Introduction and fish stocking in lakes and reservoirs in Southeast Asia: a review. In: van Densen WLT, Morris MJ (eds) Fish and fisheries of lakes and reservoirs in southeast Asia and Africa. Westbury Academic and Scientific Publishing, Otley, pp 117–142Google Scholar
  7. Baltz DM, Moyle PB (1993) Invasion resistance to introduced species by a native assemblage of California stream fishes. Ecol Appl 3:246–255Google Scholar
  8. Barton K (2013) MuMIn: multi-model inference. R package version 1.15.1. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=MuMIn
  9. Bates D, Meechler M, Bolker B (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J Stat Softw 67(1):1–48Google Scholar
  10. Bossenbroek JM, Johnson LE, Peters B et al (2007) Forecasting the expansion of zebra mussels in the United States. Conserv Biol 21:800–810CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brook BW, Sodhi NS, Ng PKL (2003) Catastrophic extinctions follow deforestation in Singapore. Nature 424:420–426CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Byers JE, Noonburg EG (2003) Scale dependent effects of biotic resistance to biological invasion. Ecology 84:1428–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Capers RS, Selsky R, Bugbee GJ et al (2007) Aquatic plant community invasibiity and scale-dependent patterns in native and invasive species richness. Ecology 88:3135–3143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chookajorn T, Duangsawadi S, Chansawang B et al (1999) The fish community of Ubolratana Reservoir, Thailand. In: van Densen WLT, Morris MJ (eds) Fish and fisheries of lakes and reservoirs in southeast Asia and Africa. Westbury Publishing, Great Britain, pp 95–103Google Scholar
  16. Clavero M, García-Berthou E (2005) Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions. Trends Ecol Evol 20:110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Colautti RI, Ia Grigorovich, MacIsaac HJ (2006) Propagule pressure: a null model for biological invasions. Biol Invasions 8:1023–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Connell JH (1983) On the prevalence and relative importance of interspecific competition: evidence from field experiments. Am Nat 122:661–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cucherousset J, Bouletreau S, Martino A et al (2012) Using stable isotope analyses to determine the ecological effects of non-native fishes. Fish Manag Ecol 19:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis MA, Grime JP, Thompson K (2000) Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J Ecol 88:528–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Silva SS (1987) Reservoir fishery management and development in Asia. In: De Silva SS (ed) November edn. IDRC, Kathmandu, pp 23–28Google Scholar
  22. De Silva SS, Funge-Smith S (2005) A review of stock enhancement practices in the inland water fisheries of Asia. Asia-Pacific Fishery Commision, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  23. Didham RK, Tylianakis JM, Hutchinson MA et al (2005) Are invasive species the drivers of ecological change? Trends Ecol Evol 20:470–474CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Didham RK, Tylianakis JM, Gemmell NJ et al (2007) Interactive effects of habitat modification and species invasion on native species decline. Trends Ecol Evol 22:489–496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dray S, Dufour AB (2007) The ade4 package: implementing the duality diagram for ecologists. J Stat Softw 22:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duffy JE (2003) Biodiversity loss, trophic skew and ecosystem functioning. Ecol Lett 6:680–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dunne JA, Williams RJ, Martinez ND (2002a) Food-web structure and network theory: the role of connectance and size. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:12917–12922CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunne JA, Williams RJ, Martinez ND (2002b) Network structure and biodiversity loss in food webs: robustness increases with connectance. Ecol Lett 5:558–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dzialowski AR, Lennon JT, Smith VH (2006) Food web structure provides biotic resistance against plankton invasion attempts. Biol Invasions 9:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Elton CS (1958) The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. Methuen, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eschmeyer WN (2013) Genera, species, references. In: California Academy of Sciences. Accessed 20 March 2013Google Scholar
  32. Fagan WF (1997) Omnivory as a stabilizing feature of natural communities. Am Nat 150:554–567Google Scholar
  33. Fox J, Weisberg S (2011) An R companion to applied regression. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  34. Froese R, Pauly D (eds) (2015) Fishbase. World wide web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
  35. Galiana N, Lurgi M, Montoya JM et al (2014) Invasions cause biodiversity loss and community simplification in vertebrate food webs. OIKOS 123:721–728Google Scholar
  36. Gido KB, Franssen NR (2007) Invasion of stream fishes into low trophic positions. Ecol Freshw Fish 16:457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goldstein RM, Meador MR (2004) Comparisons of fish species traits from small streams to large rivers. Trans Am Fish Soc 133:971–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goldwasser L, Roughgarden J (1993) Construction and analysis of a large Caribbean food web. Ecology 74:1216–1233Google Scholar
  39. Goltenboth F, Lehmusluoto P (2006) Lakes. In: Goltenboth F, Timotius KH, Milan PP, Margraf J (eds) Ecology of insular southeast Asia. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 96–138Google Scholar
  40. Gopal B, Ghosh D (2009) Lakes and reservoirs of Asia. In: Likens GE (ed) Encyclopedia of inland waters. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 501–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hadwen WL, Bunn SE (2005) Food web responses to low-level nutrient and 15 N-tracer additions in the littoral zone of an oligotrophic dune lake. Limnol Oceanogr 50:1096–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hansen MC, Potapov PV, Moore R et al (2013) High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science 342:850–853CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Harvey BC, White JL, Nakamoto RJ (2004) An emergent multiple predator effect may enhance biotic resistance in a stream fish assemblage. Ecology 85:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Henley WF, Patterson MA, Neves RJ et al (2000) Reviews in fisheries science effects of sedimentation and turbidity on lotic food webs : a concise review for natural resource managers. Rev Fish Sci 8:125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huenneke LF, Hamburg SP, Koide R et al (2014) Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in Californian serpentine grassland. Ecology 71:478–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jauni M, Hyvo T (2012) Positive diversity—invasibility relationships across multiple scales in Finnish agricultural habitats. Biol Invasions 14:1379–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jeschke JM (2014) General hypotheses in invasion ecology. Divers Distrib 20:1229–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson DS (1973) Freshwater life. In: Chuang SH (ed) Animal life and nature in Singapore. University Press, Singapore, pp 103–127Google Scholar
  49. Johnson JB, Omland KS (2004) Model selection in ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 19:101–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Johnson PT, Olden JD, Vander Zanden MJ (2008) Dam invaders: impoundments facilitate biological invasions into freshwaters. Front Ecol Environ 6:357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kennedy TA, Naeem S, Howe KM et al (2002) Biodiversity as a barrier to ecological invasion. Nature 417:636–638CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kottelat M, Whitten AJ, Kartikasari SN et al (1993) Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  53. Lake PS, Dowd DJO (1991) Red crabs in rain forest, Chirstmas Island: biotic resistance red crabs in rain forest, to snail invasion by an exotic snail. OIKOS 62:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Levine JM, Adler PB, Yelenik SG (2004) A meta-analysis of biotic resistance to exotic plant invasions. Ecol Lett 7:975–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lim P, Lek S, Tana S et al (1999) Diversity and spatial distribution of freshwater fish in Great Lake and Tonle Sap river (Cambodia, Southeast Asia). Aquat Living Resour 12:379–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lindeman RL (1942) The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology 23:399–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lodge DM, Williams S, MacIsaac HJ et al (2006) Biological invasions: recommendations for US policy and management. Ecol Appl 16:2035–2054CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lowry E, Rollinson EJ, Laybourn AJ et al (2013) Biological invasions: a field synopsis, systematic review, and database of the literature. Ecol Evolut 3:182–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lukacs PM, Thompson WL, Kendall WL et al (2007) Concerns regarding a call for pluralism of information theory and hypothesis testing. J Appl Ecol 44:456–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. MacDougall AS, Turkington R (2005) Are invasive species the drivers or passengers of change in degraded ecosystems? Ecology 86:42–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM et al (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidimiology, global consequences and control. Ecol Appl 10:689–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marchetti MP, Light T, Moyle PB et al (2004a) Fish invasions in California watersheds: testing hypotheses using landscape patterns. Ecol Appl 14:1507–1525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marchetti MP, Moyle PB, Levine R (2004b) Invasive species profiling? Exploring the characteristics of non-native fishes across invasion stages in California. Freshw Biol 49:646–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Marks JC, Williamson C, Hendrickson DA (2011) Coupling stable isotope studies with food web manipulations to predict the effects of exotic fish: lessons from Cuatro Cienegas, Mexico. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 21(4):317–323Google Scholar
  65. Marra G, Wood SN (2011) Practical variable selection for generalized additive models. Comput Stat Data Anal 55:2372–2387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Meyerson LA, Pys P (2013) Manipulating alien plant species propagule pressure as a prevention strategy for protected areas. In: Foxcroft LC, Pysek P, Richardson DM, Genovesi P (eds) Plant invasions in protected areas. Springer, Netherlands, pp 473–486Google Scholar
  67. Mohd SK, Lee KY, Cramphon P et al (1996) Freshwater fishes of the Pahang River Basin, Malaysia. Wetlands International-Asia Pacific, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  68. Moulton MP, Pimm SL (1983) The introduced hawaiian avifauna: biogeographic evidence for competition. Am Nat 121:669–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Moyle PB, Light T (1996) Biological invasions of fresh water: empirical rules and assembly theory. Biol Conserv 78:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nakagawa S, Schielzeth H (2013) A general and simple method for obtaining R 2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models. Methods Ecol Evol 4:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nelson A (2009) Accessibility model and population estimates. Background paper and digital files prepared for the World Development reportGoogle Scholar
  72. Ng HH, Tan HH (2010) An annotated checklist of the non-native freshwater fish species. COSMOS 6:95–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Oakley CA, Knox JS (2013) Plant species richness increases resistance to invasion by non-resident plant species during grassland restoration. Appl Veg Sci 16:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R et al (2013) Vegan: community ecology package. R package version 2.0-6Google Scholar
  75. Pace M, Cole J, Carpenter Sr et al (1999) Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems. Trends Ecol Evol 14:483–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Papa RDS, Mamaril A Sr (2011) History of the biodiversity and limno-ecological studies on Lake Taal with notes on the current state of Philippine limnology. Philipp Sci Lett 4:1–10Google Scholar
  77. Parendes LA, Jones JA (2000) Role of light availability and dispersal in exotic plant invasion along roads and streams in the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Consrv Biol 14:64–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pauly D (2000) Box 29, Fishbase. In: Froese R, Pauly D (eds) Fishbase. World wide web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
  79. Pauly D, Christensen V (1995) Primary production required to sustain global fisheries. Nature 374:255–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Perdomo G, Thompson R, Sunnucks P (2012) Food web: an open-source program for the visualisation and analysis of compilations of complex food webs. R package version 4.2Google Scholar
  81. Petchey OL (2000) Species diversity, species extinction, and ecosystem function. Am Nat 155:696–702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Pholprasith S, Sirimongkonthaworn R (1999) The fish community of Ubolratana Reservoir, Thailand. In: van Densen WLT, Morris MJ (eds) Fish and fisheries of lakes and reservoirs in southeast Asia and Africa. Westbury Publishing, Great Britain, pp 95–102Google Scholar
  83. Poessel SA, Beard KH, Callahan CM et al (2013) Biotic acceptance in introduced amphibians and reptiles in Europe and North America. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 22:192–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Polis GA (1991) Complex trophic interactions in deserts: an empirical critique of food-web theory. Am Nat 138:123–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Proches S, Wilson JRU, Richardson DM et al (2008) Searching for phylogenetic pattern in biological invasions. Global Ecol Biogeogr 17:5–10Google Scholar
  86. QGIS Development Team (2014) QGIS geographic information system. Open Source Geospatial Foundation ProjectGoogle Scholar
  87. R Core Team (2015) A language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing. R Core Team, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  88. Rainboth WJ (1996) Fishes of the cambodian mekong. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  89. Rintelen KV, Rintelen TV, Glaubrecht M (2007) Molecular phylogeny and diversification of freshwater shrimps (Decapoda, Atyidae, Caridina) from ancient Lake Poso (Sulawesi, Indonesia)—the importance of being colourful. Mol Phylogenet Evol 45:1033–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Romanuk TN, Zhou Y, Brose U et al (2009) Predicting invasion success in complex ecological networks. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:1743–1754CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Rossberg AG, Yanagi K, Amemiya T et al (2006) Estimating trophic link density from quantitative but incomplete diet data. J Theor Biol 243:261–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Rouget M, Richardson DM (2003) Inferring process from pattern in plant invasions: a semimechanistic model incorporating propagule pressure and environmental factors. Am Nat 162:713–724CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Roux PC, Ramaswiela T, Kalwij JM et al (2013) Human activities, propagule pressure and alien plants in the sub-Antarctic: tests of generalities and evidence in support of management. Biol Conserv 161:18–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sax DF, Gaines SD (2008) Species invasions and extinction: the future of native biodiversity on islands. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:11490–11497CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Scharf FS, Juanes F, Rountree RA (2000) Predator size-prey size relationships of marine fish predators: interspecific variation and effects of ontogeny and body size on trophic-niche breadth. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 208:229–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schoenly K, Cohen JE (1991) Temporal variation in food web structure: 16 empirical cases. Ecol Monogr 61:267–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Scotti M, Bondavalli C, Bodini A et al (2009) Using trophic hierarchy to understand food web structure. OIKOS 118:1695–1702Google Scholar
  98. Shea K, Chesson P (2002) Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 17:170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sim CH (2002) Fish of Tasek Bera. Wetlands International-Malaysia Programme, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  100. Simberloff D (2009) The role of propagule pressure in biological invasions. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 40:81–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sinclair ARE (1975) The resource limitation of trophic levels in tropical grassland ecosystems. J Anim Ecol 44:497–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Brook BW et al (2004) Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends Ecol Evol 19:654–660CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Sodhi NS, Bickford D, Diesmos AC et al (2008) Measuring the meltdown: drivers of global amphibian extinction and decline. PLoS ONE 3:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stachowicz JJ, Tilman D (2005) Species invasions and the relationships between species diversity, community saturation, and ecosystem functioning. In: Stachowicz JJ, Gaines SD, Sax DF (eds) Species invasions: insights into ecology, evolution, and biogeography. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts, pp 41–64Google Scholar
  105. Tacon AGJ, Metian M, Turchini GM et al (2009) Responsible aquaculture and trophic level implications to global fish supply. Rev Fish Sci 18:94–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Taylor CM, Duggan IC (2012) Can biotic resistance be utilized to reduce establishment rates of non-indigenous species in constructed waters ? Biol Invasions 14:307–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Thomas P (2005) Fishes and ecological aspects in the southern region of Lake Toba and its associated rivers, Sumatra, Indonesia. Malay Nat J 57:81–89Google Scholar
  108. Tilman D (1997) Community invasibility, recruitment limitation, and grassland biodiversity. Ecology 78:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tilman D (2004) Niche tradeoffs, neutrality, and community structure: a stochastic theory of resource competition, invasion, and community assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:10854–10861CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Turesson H, Persson A, Bronmark C (2002) Prey size selection in piscivorous pikeperch (Stizosteidon lucioperca) includes active prey choice. Ecol Freshw Fish 11:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wiens JJ (2011) The niche, biogeography and species interactions. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366:2336–2350CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Williams RJ, Martinez ND (2000) Simple rules yield complex food webs. Nature 404:180–183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Williams RJ, Martinez ND (2004) Limits to trophic levels and omnivory in complex food webs: theory and data. Am Nat 163:458–468CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Yang SL (1989) Bighead carp culture in floating net-cages and water quality at seletar reservoir—a case study. PUB R&D J 1:28–33Google Scholar
  115. Yeo DCJ, Lim KKP (2011) Freshwater ecosystems. In: Ng PKL, Corlett RT, Tan HTW (eds) Singapore biodiversity. Editions Didier Millet, Singapore, pp 52–63Google Scholar
  116. Zakaria-Ismail M, Lim KKP (1995) The fish fauna of Tasik Temenggor and its tributaries south of Banding, Hulu Perak, Malaysia. Malay Nat J 48:319–332Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. H. Liew
    • 1
  • L. R. Carrasco
    • 1
  • H. H. Tan
    • 2
  • D. C. J. Yeo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeRepublic of Singapore
  2. 2.Lee Kong Chian Natural History MuseumNational University of SingaporeSingaporeRepublic of Singapore

Personalised recommendations