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Biological Invasions

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 1077–1088 | Cite as

Intentionally introduced terrestrial invertebrates: patterns, risks, and options for management

  • Sabrina Kumschick
  • Adam Devenish
  • Marc Kenis
  • Wolfgang Rabitsch
  • David M. Richardson
  • John R. U. Wilson
Insect Invasions

Abstract

Our understanding and management of pathways of alien species introductions has improved significantly in the past few years. However, little attention has been paid in most parts of the world to the risks posed by the intentional introduction of alien terrestrial invertebrates which are not intended for use in biological control. We review the species and pathways involved in this intentional trade, and discuss key factors that mediate different aspects of risk. A total of 20 different intentions for the introduction of terrestrial invertebrates were identified. Uses and trade patterns have changed over time and further changes are likely in the future. In particular, invertebrates used in the pet trade, and as human food and animal feed are likely to increase in relevance. We assess priorities for future research and regulation based on the perceived “risk” of the uses including propagule pressure, security of captivity and ease of regulation. Regarding risk assessment, we examine three options: (a) using an existing generic protocol developed for a broad range of taxa; (b) developing a new protocol, possibly by adapting a protocol developed for other taxa; and (c) adopting the approach applied for biological control, i.e. structured experiments and observations. This review highlights the diversity of uses and associated threats of intentional terrestrial invertebrate introductions. It provides recommendations on how to tackle and prevent related issues and can therefore serve as a guideline for future work. We argue that the most suitable option for risk assessment might depend on the type or organism and the level of knowledge of the organism, as well as the intended use.

Keywords

Biological invasions Risk assessment Insects Arthropods Prediction Pathways 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The November 2014 workshop on “Drivers, impacts, mechanisms and adaptation in insect invasions” was hosted and co-funded by the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. Additional financial support was provided by HortGro, the National Research Foundation of South Africa, Stellenbosch University, and SubTrop. We thank many people for providing helpful insights on pathways, especially David Burg, Marcus Byrne, Antoinette Malan, Margaret Palmer, Sheila Storey, Stefan Foord, Mark Robertson, Cavin Shivambu, Theresa Wossler and Ulrike Bauer. The work was supported by the South African National Department of Environment Affairs through its funding of the South African National Biodiversity Institute’s Invasive Species Programme, the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology, the Swiss National Science Foundation, and the National Research Foundation (Grant 85417 to DMR). MK was also supported by the EU FP7 PROTEINSECT project (Grant 312084).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabrina Kumschick
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adam Devenish
    • 3
  • Marc Kenis
    • 4
  • Wolfgang Rabitsch
    • 5
  • David M. Richardson
    • 1
  • John R. U. Wilson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and ZoologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa
  2. 2.Invasive Species Programme, South African National Biodiversity InstituteKirstenbosch National Botanical GardensClaremontSouth Africa
  3. 3.School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences BuildingUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  4. 4.CABIDelémontSwitzerland
  5. 5.Environment Agency AustriaViennaAustria

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