Biological Invasions

, Volume 17, Issue 12, pp 3383–3392 | Cite as

Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

  • Brooke J. VetterEmail author
  • Aaron R. Cupp
  • Kim T. Fredricks
  • Mark P. Gaikowski
  • Allen F. Mensinger
Original Paper


The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.


Silver Carp Acoustics Phonotaxis Deterrent barriers Management Behavior 



We would like to thank the USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) staff and interns, especially Justin Smerud, Riley Buley, and Allison Zwarycz for their assistance with this project. The Illinois River Biological Station staff, including Andrew Casper, Levi Solomon, and Thad Cook, provided additional support. All fish handling, care, and experimental procedures used were reviewed and approved by the UMESC Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC Protocol AEH-12-PPT-AC-01). Resources for the USGS component of the research were provided through the USGS Ecosystem Mission Area Invasive Species Program and from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Great Lakes Restoration Initiative. The University of Minnesota Duluth Small Seed Research Grant provided additional funding.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brooke J. Vetter
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aaron R. Cupp
    • 2
  • Kim T. Fredricks
    • 2
  • Mark P. Gaikowski
    • 2
  • Allen F. Mensinger
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentUniversity of Minnesota DuluthDuluthUSA
  2. 2.Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences CenterUnited States Geological SurveyLa CrosseUSA

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