Population genetics and recent colonization history of the invasive drosophilid Zaprionus indianus in Mexico and Central America
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Zaprionus indianus, also known as the African fig fly, is an invasive pest of a variety of commercial and native fruit. The species was first reported in Brazil in 1999, but has established itself in much of the New World within the last 10–15 years. We used nucleotide sequences from a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene to examine haplotype relationships, population structure, and infer the colonization history of Z. indianus in Mexico and Panama. Construction of a haplotype network showed that six COI haplotypes, obtained from flies collected at six localities in Mexico and one in Panama, clustered into three distinct clades. Clade composition was generally consistent in flies from Panama to northwestern Mexico, and analysis of molecular variance indicated no significant structure among populations. Three of the six haplotypes from Mexico and Panama were identical to previously reported haplotypes from Brazil. None of the six haplotypes, however, were shared with previously reported haplotypes from potential source populations in the Old World. The results of our genetic analysis suggest that the invasion of Z. indianus into Central America and Mexico most probably includes a northward migration of individuals from Brazil, with the possibility of at least one additional introduction of Z. indianus to the New World. Additional sequence data from potential source populations in the Old World will be required to confidently determine the number of introductions of Z. indianus into the New World, and to identify the geographic source.
KeywordsCytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) Dispersal Haplotype network Population structure
We thank Dan L. Lindsley, John Pool, Sergio Castrezana and Sarah Johnson for their help with this project. This work was supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) Grants DEB 00-75312 and OISE-0440648 to T.A.M., University of California Institute for Mexico and the United States (UC MEXUS) Grants FA11-75 to T.A.M., ST11/12-06 to G.H. and CN12-583 to M.P.R and J.R.E., Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) Proyecto 180385 and funds from LANGEBIO to T.A.M., and the Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica de la Universidad Autónoma Nacional de México (PAPIIT) Grant #IN200313 to J.R.E.
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