Advertisement

Biological Invasions

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 775–783 | Cite as

The desire for variety: Italian wall lizard (Podarcis siculus) populations introduced to the United States via the pet trade are derived from multiple native-range sources

  • Jason J. KolbeEmail author
  • Brian R. Lavin
  • Russell L. Burke
  • Lorenzo Rugiero
  • Massimo Capula
  • Luca Luiselli
Original Paper

Abstract

Tests of invasion success often require comparisons between introduced and native populations, but determining the native-range sources for introduced populations can be difficult. Molecular markers can help clarify the geographic extent of native-range sources, helping to identify which populations are appropriate for comparative studies. The Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis siculus) was introduced multiple times to the United States with extant populations in California, Kansas, New Jersey, and New York. We used phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA sequences (cytb gene) for individuals sampled from these introduced populations and across the native range to identify the number of independent introductions and the location of the source populations. Haplotypes sampled from introduced populations were nested within three geographically distinct, well-supported clades that together encompassed a large portion of the native range. Combining these phylogeographic results with documentation of the introductions revealed putative sources: California individuals are derived from Sicily; Kansas and New York populations are from Tuscany near Florence; and the New Jersey population is likely from the Adriatic coastal region, but a more specific locality is not possible. The pet trade dominates the invasion pathway for P. siculus introductions to the US. The genetically and geographically diverse sampling of its native range may be driven by the desire for phenotypic variety in the pet trade, a hypothesis that needs future testing.

Keywords

Introduced species Invasion history Mitochondrial DNA Non-native range Phylogeography Reptile Podarcis siculus 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Italian specimens were collected under authorization of the Regione Lazio (Dipartimento Ambiente e Protezione Civile). New York does not require permits for Podarcis collection, and New Jersey specimens were collected under permits SC 28094 and SC 29056. Pierluigi Bombi, Claudia Corti, Manuela D’Amen, Francesca Pau, Daniele Salvi, and Marco Zuffi assisted with lizard collection in Italy. Joseph Collins, Guntram Deichsel, Josh Foronda, James Gubanyi, Larry Miller, and William Pitts assisted with US lizard collections. RLB acknowledges the support of the Council for the International Exchange of Scholars through a Fulbright Scholarship.

Supplementary material

10530_2012_325_MOESM1_ESM.xls (38 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 37 kb)

References

  1. Brandley MC, Schmitz A, Reeder TW (2005) Partitioned Bayesian analyses, partition choice, and the phylogenetic relationships of scincid lizards. Syst Biol 54:373–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burke RL (2010) Geographic distribution: Podarcis sicula campestris. Herp Rev 41:514Google Scholar
  3. Burke RL, Deichsel G (2008) Lacertid lizards introduced into North America: history and future. In: Mitchell JC, Jung RE, Bartholomew B (eds) Urban herpetology. Herpetological conservation, vol. 3. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, pp 347–353Google Scholar
  4. Burke RL, Mercurio R (2002) Food habits of a New York population of Italian wall lizards, Podarcis sicula (Reptilia, Lacertidae). Am Midl Nat 147:368–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burke RL, Ner S (2005) Seasonal and daily activity patterns of Italian Wall Lizards, Podarcis sicula campestris, in New York. Northeast Nat 12:349–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burke RL, Goldberg S, Bursey C, Perkins S, Andreadis P (2007) Depauperate parasite fauna in introduced populations of Podarcis (Squamata: Lacertidae) lizards in North America. J Herp 41:755–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Capula M (1994) Population genetics of a colonizing lizard: loss of genetic variability in introduced populations of Podarcis sicula. Experientia 50:691–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapple DG, Miller KA, Kraus F, Thompson MB (2012) Divergent introduction histories among invasive populations of the delicate skink (Lampropholis delicata): has the importance of genetic admixture in the success of biological invasions been overemphasized? Div Dist. doi:  10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00919.x
  9. Colautti RI, Ricciardi A, Grigorovich IA, MacIsaac HJ (2004) Is invasion success explained by the enemy release hypothesis? Ecol Lett 7:721–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corti C, Lo Cascio P (2002) The lizards of Italy and adjacent areas. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
  11. Corti C, Biaggini M, Capula M (2011) Podarcis siculus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1810). In: Corti C, Capula M, Razzetti E, Sindaco R (eds) Fauna d’Italia, vol XLV. Reptilia. Calderini - Edizioni Calderini de Il Sole 24 ORE S.p.A., BolognaGoogle Scholar
  12. Deichsel G, Nafis G, Hakim J (2010) Geographic distribution: Podarcis siculus. Herp Rev 41:513–514Google Scholar
  13. Dlugosch KM, Parker IM (2008) Founding events in species invasions: genetic variation, adaptive evolution, and the role of multiple introductions. Mol Ecol 17:431–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fitzpatrick BM, Fordyce JA, Niemiller ML, Reynolds RG (2012) What can DNA tell us about biological invasions? Biol Invasions 14:245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gossweiler WA (1975) European lizards established on Long Island. Copeia 1975:584–585Google Scholar
  16. Gubanyi JE (1999) Update on Lacerta in Topeka, Kansas. Kansas Herp Soc News 118:13–14Google Scholar
  17. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17:754–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Keller SR, Taylor DR (2008) History, chance and adaptation during biological invasion: separating stochastic phenotypic evolution from response to selection. Ecol Lett 11:852–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kolbe JJ, Glor RE, Rodriguez-Schettino L, Chamizo-Lara A, Larson A, Losos JB (2004) Genetic variation increases during biological invasion by a Cuban lizard. Nature 431:177–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kolbe JJ, Glor RE, Rodriguez-Schettino L, Chamizo-Lara A, Larson A, Losos JB (2007a) Multiple sources, admixture, and genetic variation in introduced Anolis lizard populations. Conserv Biol 21:1612–1625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kolbe JJ, Larson A, Losos JB (2007b) Differential admixture shapes morphological variation among invasive populations of the lizard Anolis sagrei. Mol Ecol 16:1579–1591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kraus F (2009) Alien reptiles and amphibians: a scientific compendium and analysis. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lever C (2003) Naturalized reptiles and amphibians of the world. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  24. Lockwood JL, Hoopes MF, Marchetti MP (2007) Invasion ecology. Blackwell Publishing, MaldenGoogle Scholar
  25. Oliverio M, Burke RL, Bologna MA, Wirz A, Mariottini P (2001) Molecular characterization of native (Italy) and introduced (USA) Podarcis sicula populations (Reptilia, Lacertidae). Ital J Zool 68:121–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Podnar M, Mayer W, Tvrtkovic N (2005) Phylogeography of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis sicula, as revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol Ecol 14:575–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Podnar M, Haring E, Pinsker W, Mayer W (2007) Unusual origin of a nuclear pseudogene in the Italian wall lizard: intergenomic and interspecific transfer of a large section of the mitochondrial genome in the genus Podarcis (Lacertidae). J Mol Evol 64:308–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Posada D, Crandall KA (1998) Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14:817–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sakai AK et al (2001) The population biology of invasive species. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 32:305–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sambrook J, Russell DW (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, PlainviewGoogle Scholar
  31. Sax DF, Stachowicz JJ, Gaines SD (eds) (2005) Species invasions: insights into ecology, evolution, and biogeography. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  32. Schulte U, Hochkirch A, Lötters S, Rödder D, Schweiger S, Weimann T, Veith M (2012) Cryptic niche conservatism among evolutionary lineages of an invasive lizard. Global Ecol Biogeo 21:198–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stamatakis A, Hoover P, Rougemont J (2008) A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML web-servers. Syst Biol 75:758–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods) v 4.b10. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  35. Tsutsui ND, Suarez AV, Holway DA, Case TJ (2001) Relationships among native and introduced populations of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the source of introduced populations. Mol Ecol 10:2151–2161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tucker BJ (1998) 1998 October activity of an Italian Wall Lizard (Podarsis sicula) community at 1880 S.W. Gage Boulevard, Topeka, Kansas. Unpublished Herpetology Class Term Paper. Washburn University, p 10Google Scholar
  37. Wares JP, Hughes AR, Grosberg RK (2005) Mechanisms that drive evolutionary change: insights from species introductions and invasions. In: Sax DF, Stachowicz JJ, Gaines SD (eds) Species invasions: insights into ecology, evolution, and biogeography. Sinauer, Sunderland, pp 229–257Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason J. Kolbe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brian R. Lavin
    • 2
    • 6
  • Russell L. Burke
    • 3
  • Lorenzo Rugiero
    • 4
  • Massimo Capula
    • 5
  • Luca Luiselli
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA
  2. 2.Museum of Vertebrate ZoologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyHofstra UniversityHempsteadUSA
  4. 4.Centro di Studi Ambientali Demetra s.r.l.RomeItaly
  5. 5.Museo Civico di ZoologiaRomeItaly
  6. 6.Department of BiologySonoma State UniversityRohnert ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations