Are botanical gardens a risk for zooplankton invasions?

Abstract

A number of zooplankton invasions have been linked with the movement of plants to botanical and other public gardens. Although most of these records are historical, several recent examples indicate that aquatic fauna may still be transported by plant movements among gardens, or that there are unrecognised long-standing established populations in garden ponds around the world. We sampled 40 ponds from 10 gardens, in the United Kingdom and United States, to determine whether there is a high prevalence of non-indigenous zooplankton in garden ponds that could spread more widely if provided opportunity. No non-indigenous species were recorded from any of the gardens visited. We conclude that most well-established gardens do not pose a major threat for zooplankton invasions, mainly due to the destruction of ponds and associated populations through time, which apparently occurs commonly. In addition, ponds are regularly cleaned, insecticides are used on plants that may enter the water, and small fish are frequently added to conservatory ponds, further reducing the probability of zooplankton survival. Extirpation of populations may be occurring at a greater rate than re-introduction, due to greater restrictions on movement of plants, while the increasing focus on ex-situ conservation and science rather than aesthetics by botanical gardens means that fewer aquatic plants are being moved.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Banks CM, Duggan IC (2009) Lake construction has facilitated calanoid copepod invasions in New Zealand. Divers Distrib 15:80–87

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Baskin Y (2002) The greening of horticulture: new codes of conduct aim to curb plant invasions. Bioscience 52:464–471

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Beddard FE (1906) The wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Amphibia. Bull Misc Inf, R Bot Gard Kew Addit Ser 5:66–68

  4. Brooks JL, Dodson SI (1965) Predation, body size, and composition of plankton. Science 150:28–35

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Bruno MC, Reid JW, Perry SA (2005) A list and identification key for the freshwater, free-living copepods of Florida (U.S.A.). J Crustacean Biol 25:384–400

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Duggan IC (2010) The freshwater aquarium trade as a vector for incidental invertebrate fauna. Biol Invasions 12:3757–3770

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Duggan IC, Green JD, Burger DF (2006) First New Zealand records of three non-indigenous zooplankton species: Skistodiaptomus pallidus, Sinodiaptomus valkanovi and Daphnia dentifera. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res 40:561–569

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Günther A (1906) The wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Amphibia. Bull Misc Inf, R Bot Gard Kew Addit Ser 5:10–12

  9. Harding JO, Smith WP (1974) A key to the British cyclopid and calanoid copepods. Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication, 18, Ambleside, UK

    Google Scholar 

  10. Hebert PDN, Witt JDS, Adamowicz SJ (2003) Phylogeographical patterning in Daphnia ambigua: regional divergence and intercontinental cohesion. Limnol Oceanogr 48:261–268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Heywood VH (1987) The changing role of the botanic gardens. In: Bramwell D, Hamann O, Heywood V, Synge H (eds) Botanic gardens and the World conservation strategy. Academic Press, London, pp 3–18

    Google Scholar 

  12. Heywood VH (2011) The role of botanic gardens as resource and introduction centres in the face of global change. Biodivers Conserv 20:221–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Koste W (1978) Rotatoria Die Radertiere Mitteleuropas (Uberordnung Monogononta). Stuttgart, Berlin, Borntraeger

    Google Scholar 

  14. Lang K (1948) Monographie der Harpacticiden. Håkan Ohlssons Boktryckeri, Lund

    Google Scholar 

  15. Lankester ER (1880) On Limnocodium (Craspedacusta) sowerbii, a new trachomedusa inhabiting fresh water. Q J Micros Sci 20:351–371

    Google Scholar 

  16. Light SF (1939) New American subgenera of Diaptomus Westwood (Copepoda, Calanoida). Trans Am Microsc Soc 58:473–484

    Google Scholar 

  17. Mack RN (2005) Predicting the identity of plant invaders: future contributions from horticulture. HortScience 40:1168–1174

    Google Scholar 

  18. Mack RN, Lonsdale WM (2001) Humans as global plant dispersers: getting more than we bargained for. Bioscience 51:95–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Makino W, Knox MA, Duggan IC (2010) Invasion, genetic variation and species identity of the calanoid copepod Sinodiaptomus valkanovi. Freshwater Biol 55:375–386

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Mayou R, Matthews J (2010) The buildings of the botanic garden. Botanic Garden News (Oxford) 73:4–7

    Google Scholar 

  21. Onbasili D, Duman F (2010) Acute toxicity of some insecticides on Artemia salina and Daphnia magna. Fresenius Environ Bull 19:2608–2610

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Pennak RW (1978) Freshwater invertebrates of the United States. Wiley, New York, p 803

    Google Scholar 

  23. Pennisi E (2010) Tending the global garden. Science 329:1274–1277

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Pocock RI (1906) The wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Amphibia. Bull Misc Inf, R Bot Gard Kew Addit Ser 5:21–22

  25. Reichard SH (2004) Conflicting values and common goals: codes of conduct to reduce the threat invasive species. Weed Technol 18:1503–1507

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Reichard SH, White P (2001) Horticulture as a pathway of invasive plant introductions in the United States. Bioscience 51:103–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Reid JW (1999) New records of Bryocyclops from the continental U.S.A., Puerto Rico, and Brazil (copepoda: cyclopoida: cyclopidae). J Crustacean Biol 19:84–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Reid JW (2001) A human challenge: discovering and understanding continental copepod habitats. Hydrobiologia 453(454):201–226

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Reid JW (2008) Arctodiaptomus dorsalis (Marsh): a case history of copepod dispersal. Banisteria 30:3–18

    Google Scholar 

  30. Reid JW, Hribar LJ (2006) Records of some Copepoda (Crustacea) from the Florida Keys. Proc Acad Nat Sci Philadelphia 155:1–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Scourfield DJ (1947) A short-spined Daphnia presumably belonging to the ‘‘longispina’’ group - D. ambigua n.sp. J Quekett Micros Club 11:127–131

    Google Scholar 

  32. Segers H (1995) Rotifera vol. 2: the Lecanidae. In: Dumont HJ (ed) Guides to the identification of the microinvertebrates of the continental waters of the World 6. SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague

    Google Scholar 

  33. Soderstrom M (2001) Recreating Eden : a natural history of botanical gardens. Véhicule Press, Montréal

    Google Scholar 

  34. Sowerby AD (1941) The romance of the Chinese fresh-water jellyfish. Hong Kong Naturalist 10:186–189

    Google Scholar 

  35. Ueda H, Ohtsuka S (1998) Redescription and taxonomic status of Sinodiaptomus valkanovi, a common limnoplanktonic calanoid copepod in Japan, with comparison to the closely related S. sarsi. Hydrobiologia 379:159–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank all those gardens that agreed to allow us to take samples from their ponds, and those employees that took their time to guide us and provide information on the ponds; P. Brownless (RBGE), P. Morris (Kew), K. Pritchard (Oxford), J. Arcate Schuler (NYBG), R. Mottern III (Duke), C. Flanagan (USBG), M. Gray (Mobot), C. Sclar (Longwood) and M. Eysenbach (Chicago Parks). We thank R. Keller (U. Chicago) and M. Williamson (U. York) for providing preservative. J. Muirhead (Smithsonian Institute), J. Banks (Waikato) and H. Hodges aided in shipping samples. H. MacIsaac, J. Reid and an anonymous reviewer provided comments that improved our manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ian C. Duggan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Duggan, I.C., Duggan, K.S. Are botanical gardens a risk for zooplankton invasions?. Biol Invasions 13, 2997–3003 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-011-9984-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Botanical gardens
  • Craspedacusta
  • Historic vector
  • Incidental fauna