Are botanical gardens a risk for zooplankton invasions?
- 452 Downloads
A number of zooplankton invasions have been linked with the movement of plants to botanical and other public gardens. Although most of these records are historical, several recent examples indicate that aquatic fauna may still be transported by plant movements among gardens, or that there are unrecognised long-standing established populations in garden ponds around the world. We sampled 40 ponds from 10 gardens, in the United Kingdom and United States, to determine whether there is a high prevalence of non-indigenous zooplankton in garden ponds that could spread more widely if provided opportunity. No non-indigenous species were recorded from any of the gardens visited. We conclude that most well-established gardens do not pose a major threat for zooplankton invasions, mainly due to the destruction of ponds and associated populations through time, which apparently occurs commonly. In addition, ponds are regularly cleaned, insecticides are used on plants that may enter the water, and small fish are frequently added to conservatory ponds, further reducing the probability of zooplankton survival. Extirpation of populations may be occurring at a greater rate than re-introduction, due to greater restrictions on movement of plants, while the increasing focus on ex-situ conservation and science rather than aesthetics by botanical gardens means that fewer aquatic plants are being moved.
KeywordsBotanical gardens Craspedacusta Historic vector Incidental fauna
We thank all those gardens that agreed to allow us to take samples from their ponds, and those employees that took their time to guide us and provide information on the ponds; P. Brownless (RBGE), P. Morris (Kew), K. Pritchard (Oxford), J. Arcate Schuler (NYBG), R. Mottern III (Duke), C. Flanagan (USBG), M. Gray (Mobot), C. Sclar (Longwood) and M. Eysenbach (Chicago Parks). We thank R. Keller (U. Chicago) and M. Williamson (U. York) for providing preservative. J. Muirhead (Smithsonian Institute), J. Banks (Waikato) and H. Hodges aided in shipping samples. H. MacIsaac, J. Reid and an anonymous reviewer provided comments that improved our manuscript.
- Beddard FE (1906) The wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Amphibia. Bull Misc Inf, R Bot Gard Kew Addit Ser 5:66–68Google Scholar
- Günther A (1906) The wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Amphibia. Bull Misc Inf, R Bot Gard Kew Addit Ser 5:10–12Google Scholar
- Harding JO, Smith WP (1974) A key to the British cyclopid and calanoid copepods. Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication, 18, Ambleside, UKGoogle Scholar
- Heywood VH (1987) The changing role of the botanic gardens. In: Bramwell D, Hamann O, Heywood V, Synge H (eds) Botanic gardens and the World conservation strategy. Academic Press, London, pp 3–18Google Scholar
- Koste W (1978) Rotatoria Die Radertiere Mitteleuropas (Uberordnung Monogononta). Stuttgart, Berlin, BorntraegerGoogle Scholar
- Lang K (1948) Monographie der Harpacticiden. Håkan Ohlssons Boktryckeri, LundGoogle Scholar
- Lankester ER (1880) On Limnocodium (Craspedacusta) sowerbii, a new trachomedusa inhabiting fresh water. Q J Micros Sci 20:351–371Google Scholar
- Light SF (1939) New American subgenera of Diaptomus Westwood (Copepoda, Calanoida). Trans Am Microsc Soc 58:473–484Google Scholar
- Mack RN (2005) Predicting the identity of plant invaders: future contributions from horticulture. HortScience 40:1168–1174Google Scholar
- Mayou R, Matthews J (2010) The buildings of the botanic garden. Botanic Garden News (Oxford) 73:4–7Google Scholar
- Onbasili D, Duman F (2010) Acute toxicity of some insecticides on Artemia salina and Daphnia magna. Fresenius Environ Bull 19:2608–2610Google Scholar
- Pennak RW (1978) Freshwater invertebrates of the United States. Wiley, New York, p 803Google Scholar
- Pocock RI (1906) The wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Amphibia. Bull Misc Inf, R Bot Gard Kew Addit Ser 5:21–22Google Scholar
- Reid JW (2008) Arctodiaptomus dorsalis (Marsh): a case history of copepod dispersal. Banisteria 30:3–18Google Scholar
- Scourfield DJ (1947) A short-spined Daphnia presumably belonging to the ‘‘longispina’’ group - D. ambigua n.sp. J Quekett Micros Club 11:127–131Google Scholar
- Segers H (1995) Rotifera vol. 2: the Lecanidae. In: Dumont HJ (ed) Guides to the identification of the microinvertebrates of the continental waters of the World 6. SPB Academic Publishing bv, The HagueGoogle Scholar
- Soderstrom M (2001) Recreating Eden : a natural history of botanical gardens. Véhicule Press, MontréalGoogle Scholar
- Sowerby AD (1941) The romance of the Chinese fresh-water jellyfish. Hong Kong Naturalist 10:186–189Google Scholar