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Widespread plant species: natives versus aliens in our changing world

Abstract

Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

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Acknowledgments

We thank the many taxonomists and database providers that made this study possible. Lifetimes of taxonomist expertise were required for geographic completeness, taxonomic accuracy, and quality control required for this cursory analysis. To taxonomists and data managers everywhere, we are grateful. We thank Zuzana Sixtová for technical assistance. PP was supported by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (AV0Z60050516 and Praemium Academiae Award) and the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic (MSM0021620828 and LC06073). AP contribution supported by ICM P05-002 and PFB-23. TJS contribution supported by U.S. Geological Survey Invasive Species Program, USGS Fort Collins Science Program, and USDA CSREES/NRI 2008-35615-04666. We thank C. Daehler and two anonymous reviewers for very helpful suggestions.

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Correspondence to Thomas J. Stohlgren.

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Stohlgren, T.J., Pyšek, P., Kartesz, J. et al. Widespread plant species: natives versus aliens in our changing world. Biol Invasions 13, 1931–1944 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-011-0024-9

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Keywords

  • Alien plants
  • Biotic homogenization
  • China
  • Europe
  • Globalization
  • North America
  • Plant invasions
  • South Africa
  • South America
  • Species distributions