Phase shift to algal dominated communities at mesophotic depths associated with lionfish (Pterois volitans) invasion on a Bahamian coral reef
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Mesophotic coral reefs (30–150 m) have been assumed to be physically and biologically connected to their shallow-water counterparts, and thus may serve as refugia for important taxonomic groups such as corals, sponges, and fish. The recent invasion of the Indo–Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) onto shallow reefs of the Caribbean and Bahamas has had significant, negative, effects on shallow coral reef fish populations. In the Bahamas, lionfish have extended their habitat range into mesophotic depths down to 91 m where they have reduced the diversity of several important fish guilds, including herbivores. A phase shift to an algal dominated (>50% benthic cover) community occurred simultaneously with the loss of herbivores to a depth of 61 m and caused a significant decline in corals and sponges at mesophotic depths. The effects of this invasive lionfish on mesophotic coral reefs and the subsequent changes in benthic community structure could not be explained by coral bleaching, overfishing, hurricanes, or disease independently or in combination. The significant ecological effects of the lionfish invasion into mesophotic depths of coral reefs casts doubt on whether these communities have the resilience to recover themselves or contribute to the recovery of their shallow water counterparts as refugia for key coral reef taxa.
KeywordsLionfish Coral reefs Mesophotic Phase shifts Herbivory Mezograzers
We thank our colleagues N. Alvarado, E. Kintzing, B. Kakuk, and M. Lombardi for assistance on our deep technical dives, and D.J. Gochfeld and C.M. Diaz for additional field and laboratory support. We also thank Dr. Miquel De Cáceres Ainsa for his help with the STImodels and cascadeKM functions in R. This project was funded by grants from the NOAA Ocean Exploration and National Undersea Research Programs, NOAA’s National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology and the National Science Foundation. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of these agencies. All experiments conducted for this study comply with the current laws of the Bahamas and the United States of America.
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