Skip to main content

A test of baker’s law: breeding systems of invasive species of Asteraceae in China

Abstract

Invasive alien plant species are frequently characterized by a high fecundity. However, because suitable pollinators and/or mates may be absent in the new range, it is not clear how they achieve high seed production. According to Baker’s Law, species capable of uniparental reproduction are more likely to establish after long-distance dispersal than species that rely on suitable mates and pollinators. To test whether self-compatible species, and particularly species capable of autonomous seed set, are more likely to establish and spread, we experimentally assessed the breeding systems of 12 species of Asteraceae that are invasive in China. Among these 12 species of Asteraceae, the percentages of self-compatible species (66.7%) and species capable of autonomous seed set (83.3%), which included self-fertilizing and apomictic species, were significantly larger than expected from the percentages of such species in global data sets of Asteraceae (36.8% and 46.0%, respectively). Furthermore, the number of Chinese provinces in which the invasive alien species occur was significantly positively correlated with the proportion seed set on bagged capitula (i.e. with the degree of autonomous seed set). Among 36 species of Asteraceae that are invasive in China and for which we found breeding-system data in the literature, we also found a higher than expected percentage of self-compatible species (65.7%), and that these self-compatible species are more widespread in China than self-incompatible species. These results support the predictions of Baker’s Law that self-compatible species, and particularly those capable of autonomous seed production, are more likely to establish and spread in a new range. Therefore, breeding systems of plants should be included as one of the key elements in risk assessment protocols for plant invasiveness.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Auld BA, Martin PM (1975) Autecology of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. in Australia. Weed Res 15:27–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baker HG (1955) Self-compatibility and establishment after ‘long-distance’ dispersal. Evolution 9:347–349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baker HG (1965) Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. In: Baker HG, Stebbins GL (eds) The genetics of colonizing species. Academic Press, New York, pp 147–172

    Google Scholar 

  • Barrett SCH, Harder LD, Worley AC (1996) The comparative biology of pollination and mating in flowering plants. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond B 351:1271–1280

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bertin RI (1993) Incidence of monoecy and dichogamy in relation to self-fertilization in angiosperms. Am J Bot 80:557–560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brennan AC, Harris SA, Tabah DA, Hiscock SJ (2002) The population genetics of sporophytic self-incompatibility in Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae) I: S allele diversity in a natural population. Heredity 89:430–438

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bucharova A, van Kleunen M (2009) Introduction history and species characteristics partly explain naturalization success of North American woody species in Europe. J Ecol 97:230–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Colautti RI, Grigorovich IA, MacIsaac HJ (2006) Propagule pressure: a null model for biological invasions. Biol Invas 8:1023–1037

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cronk QCB, Fuller JL (2001) Plant invaders. Earthscan, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Currier HB (1957) Callose substance in plant cells. Am J Bot 44:478–482

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daehler CC (1998) The taxonomic distribution of invasive angiosperm plants: ecological insights and comparison to agricultural weeds. Biol Conserv 84:167–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daehler CC (2003) Performance comparisons of co-occurring native and alien invasive plants. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 34:183–211

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daehler CC, Strong DR (1993) Prediction and biological invasion. Trends Ecol Evol 8:380

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ferrer MM, Good-Avila SV (2007) Macrophylogenetic analyses of the gain and loss of self-incompatibility in the Asteraceae. New Phytol 173:401–414

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fryxell PA (1957) Mode of reproduction of higher plants. Bot Rev 23:135–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grombone-Guaratini MT, Solferini VN, Semir J (2004) Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae). J Sci Food Agric 61:185–189

    Google Scholar 

  • Groves RH, Panetta FD, Virtue JG (2001) Weed risk assessment. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood

    Google Scholar 

  • Hao JH, Qiang S, Liu QQ, Cao F (2009) Reproductive traits assotiated with invasiveness in Conyza sumatrensis. J Plant Syst Evol 47:245–254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hiscock SJ (2000) Self-incompatibility in Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae). Ann Bot 85SA:181–190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hong L, Shen H, Ye WH, Cao HL, Wang ZM (2007) Self-incompatibility in Mikania micrantha in South China. Weed Res 47:280–283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hutchinson I, Colosi J, Lewin RA (1984) The biology of Canadian weeds. 63. Sonchus asper (L.) hill and Sonchus oleraceus L. Can J Plant Sci 64:731–744

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Küster EC, Kühn I, Bruelheide H, Klotz S (2008) Trait interactions help explain plant invasion success in the German flora. J Ecol 96:860–868

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lafuma L, Maurice S (2007) Increase in mate availability without loss of self-incompatibility in the invasive species Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae). Oikos 116:201–208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lambdon PW, Lloret F, Hulme PE (2008) How do introduction characteristics influence the invasion success of mediterranean alien plants? Perspect Plant Ecol 10:143–159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lloyd DG, Schoen DJ (1992) Self- and cross-fertilization in plants. I. Functional dimensions. Int J Plant Sci 153:358–369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lockwood JL, Cassey P, Blackburn T (2005) The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 20:223–228

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mason RAB, Cooke J, Moles AT, Leishman MR (2008) Reproductive output of invasive versus native plants. Glob Ecol Biogeog 17:633–640

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McMullen CK (1987) Breeding systems of selected Galapagos Islands angiosperms. Am J Bot 74:1694–1705

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mejias JA (1992) Reproductive biology in the Iberian taxa of the genera Sonchus and Aetheorhiza (Asteraceae: Lactuceae). Flor Mediter 2:5–24

    Google Scholar 

  • Melvillme R, Morton JK (1982) A biosystematic study of the Solidago canadensis (Compositae) complex. I. The Ontario populations. Can J Bot 60:976–997

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ming LC (1999) Ageratum conyzoides: a tropical source of medicinal and agricultural products. In: Janick J (ed) Perspectives of new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, pp 469–473

    Google Scholar 

  • Mooney HA, Mack RN, McNeely JA, Neville LE, Schei PJ, Waage JK (2005) Invasive alien species: a new synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Mulligan GA, Findlay N (1970) Reproductive systems and colonization in Canada weeds. Can J Bot 48:859–860

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nogler GA (1984) Gametophytic apomixis. In: Johri BM (ed) Embryology of angiosperms. Springer, Berlin, pp 474–518

    Google Scholar 

  • Noyes RD, Rieseberg LH (2000) Two independent loci control agamospermy in the triploid flowering plant Erigeron annuus. Genetics 155:379–390

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pannell JR, Barrett SCH (1998) Baker’s law revisited: reproductive assurance in a metapopulation. Evolution 52:657–668

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pheloung PC, Williams PA, Halloy SR (1999) A weed risk assessment model for use as a biosecurity tool evaluating plant introductions. J Environ Manage 57:239–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pullaiah T (1982) Studies in the embryology of compositae. II. The tribe Eupatorieae. Eupatorium odoratum, Ageratum conyzoides. Ind J Bot 5:183–188

    Google Scholar 

  • Pyšek P (1998) Is there a taxonomic pattern to plant invasions? Oikos 82:282–294

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pyšek P, Richardson DM (2007) Traits associated with invasiveness in alien plants: where do we stand? In: Nentwig W (ed) Biological invasions. Section II. Springer, Berlin, pp 97–125

    Google Scholar 

  • Pyšek P, Prach K, Šmilauer P (1995) Relating invasion success to plant traits: an analysis of the Czech alien flora. In: Pyšek P, Prach K, Rejmánek M, Wade M (eds) Plant invasions–general aspects and special problems. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsteradam, pp 39–60

    Google Scholar 

  • Rambuda TD, Johnson SD (2004) Breeding systems of invasive alien plants in South Africa: does baker’s rule apply? Divers Distrib 10:409–416

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rejmánek M (1996) A theory of seed plant invasiveness: the first sketch. Biol Conserv 78:171–181

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rejmánek M, Richardson DM (1996) What attributes make some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77:1655–1661

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richardson DM, Pyšek P (2006) Plant invasions: merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility. Progr Phys Geog 30:409–431

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richardson DM, Pyšek P, Rejmánek M, Barbour MG, Panetta FD, West CJ (2000) Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concept and definitions. Divers Distrib 6:93–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • R Development Core Team (2009) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org

  • Rodger JG, van Kleunen M, Johnson SD (2010) Is specialised pollination an impediment to invasion? Int J Plant Sci 171:382–391

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stebbins GL (1957) Self-fertilization and population variation in the higher plants. Am Nat 91:337–354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sun M, Ritland K (1998) Mating system of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a successful colonizer in North America. Heredity 80:225–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sutherland S (2004) What makes a weed a weed: life history traits of native and exotic plants in the USA. Oecologia 141:24–39

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van Kleunen M, Johnson SD (2005) Testing for ecological and genetic allee effects in the invasive shrub Senna didymobotrya (Fabaceae). Am J Bot 92:1124–1130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Kleunen M, Johnson SD (2007) Effects of self-compatibility on the distribution range of invasive European plants in North America. Conserv Biol 21:1537–1544

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van Kleunen M, Richardson DM (2007) Invasion biology and conservation biology–time to join forces to explore the links between species traits and extinction risk and invasiveness. Progr Phys Geog 31:447–450

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Kleunen M, Manning JC, Pasqualetto V, Johnson SD (2008) Phylogenetically independent associations between autonomous self-fertilization and plant invasiveness. Am Nat 171:195–201

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van Kleunen M, Weber E, Fischer M (2010) A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species. Ecol Lett 13:235–245

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Weaver SE (2001) The biology of Canadian weeds. 115. Conyza canadensis. Can J Plant Sci 81:867–875

    Google Scholar 

  • Weber E, Guo S-G, Li B (2008) Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biol Invas 10:1411–1429

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Werner PA, Bradbury IK, Gross RS (1980) The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L. Can J Plant Sci 60:1393–1409

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu SH, Wang HH (2005) Potential Asteraceae invaders in Taiwan: insights from the flora and herbarium records of casual and naturalized alien species. Taiwania 50:62–70

    Google Scholar 

  • Xu HG, Qiang S (2004) Inventory of invasive alien species in China. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhu SX, Qin HN, Chen Y (2005) Alien species of compositae in China. Guihaia 25:69–76

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by National Basic Research and Development Program (2009CB1192) and Special Scientific Research Program for Non-profit Profession (No. 200709017). We thank Sara Good-Avila for providing us with data on the breeding-systems of a global set of Asteraceae, Shu Shun Li, Lu Ren and Yan Chen for their assistance during the experiments or making plates, and the editor and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. TC and MvK are supported by the Swiss Science Foundation (SNF), grant no. 31003A-117722. MvK also acknowledges support by the Sino-Swiss Science and Technology Cooperation.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sheng Qiang.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 123 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hao, J.H., Qiang, S., Chrobock, T. et al. A test of baker’s law: breeding systems of invasive species of Asteraceae in China. Biol Invasions 13, 571–580 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-010-9850-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-010-9850-4

Keywords

  • Asteraceae
  • Agamospermy
  • Apomixis
  • Autonomous seed production
  • Baker’s rule
  • Breeding system
  • Invasiveness
  • Self-compatiblity