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Weak effects of the exotic invasive Carpobrotus edulis on the structure and composition of Portuguese sand-dune communities

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Abstract

Sand dune ecosystems have a high conservation value worldwide, but they are highly threatened by exotic plant invasion. We investigated the impacts of the exotic invasive species Carpobrotus edulis on the composition and structure (spatial pattern, total cover, species diversity and species co-occurrence) of native sand dune communities in the western coast of Portugal. We studied eight sites following a north-south gradient; in each site we established 8–10 transects of 25 contiguous quadrats of one square meter. C. edulis had a significantly clumped pattern in five of the study sites, which, however, was not related to the spatial pattern of native species. The effects of climate on the community structure variables were on average three times stronger than those of C. edulis. This species also had small effects on the floristic composition of native species. Our results indicate that the success and impacts of C. edulis are habitat-dependent and context-specific. They also provide evidence of a strong resilience to the impacts of invasion in the studied sand dune ecosystems: C. edulis did not reach large abundances or exert negative impacts on native communities to the extent expected. These ecosystems provide a unique opportunity to increase our understanding on the origin of impacts by invasive species, and on how particular communities resist the impacts of an invader.

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Abbreviations

SEM:

Structural equation modeling

SES:

Standardized effect sizes

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Acknowledgments

“We thank Ana Mouro and João Mouro for their help with the field-work, and we thank Matthew A. Bowker and Adrián Escudero for their help with the statistical analyses. We also thank to anonymous referees who helped improve the paper. SMM was supported by grant SFRH/BPD/39744/2007, given by the European Social Funds of the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, Ministry of Sciences and High Education. FTM was supported by a Ramón y Cajal contract from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN), co-funded by the European Social Fund, by the Fundación BBVA (BIOCON06/105 project), by the British Ecological Society (Studentship 231/1975), by the Comunidad de Madrid (grant S-0505/AMB/0335), and by the MCINN (grant CGL2008-00986-E/BOS).”

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Correspondence to Sara Maltez-Mouro.

Appendix

Appendix

List of all the species sampled in 8 sites of the sand dune systems of the western coast of Portugal. All species except C. edulis are native species; the endemisms, legal protection, and cover percentages of each species (mean, standard deviation (Std. Dev.), and minimum and maximum) are also shown. Nomenclature follows Franco (1971–1984), Franco and Afonso (1994–1998). V, vulnerable; R, rare; P, endemism of Portugal; I, endemism of the Iberian Peninsula; a, Decreto-Lei no 140/99 Annex B-II and B-IV; b, Decreto-Lei no 316/89 Annex I; c, Habitats Directive 92/43/CEE, Annex II and IV; d, “Bern convention” (1979 Annex I) (Table 2).

Table 2  

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Maltez-Mouro, S., Maestre, F.T. & Freitas, H. Weak effects of the exotic invasive Carpobrotus edulis on the structure and composition of Portuguese sand-dune communities. Biol Invasions 12, 2117–2130 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-009-9613-2

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