Advertisement

Biological Invasions

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 1477–1480 | Cite as

Online trade poses a threat to biosecurity in New Zealand

  • José G. B. DerraikEmail author
  • Simon Phillips
Invasion Note

Abstract

Online trade is recognized as one of the major wildlife conservation challenges of present times, but its ability to facilitate biological invasions seems to be often overlooked. In New Zealand, online trading poses a biosecurity risk associated with the importation of unwanted flora and fauna into the country, as well as the spread of undesirable organisms within internal borders. We provide a number of examples to highlight the importance of this issue. There is no simple solution for this problem; it not only requires vigilance and quick action by the appropriate authorities, but it is also necessary to raise awareness by educating the public (both selling and buying species) and liaising with those in charge of online trading sites.

Keywords

Internet Online trade Biosecurity Invasive species New Zealand 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Abi Loughnan and Sonya Bissmire (MAFBNZ) for assistance and input.

References

  1. Anonymous (2008) Auction site eBay bans ivory sales to protect endangered elephants. The Daily Mail, 21 October 2008. www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1079474/Auction-site-eBay-bans-ivory-sales-protect-endangered-elephants.html. Accessed 21 Sept 2009
  2. Bell BD, Carver S, Mitchell NJ, Pledger S (2004) The recent decline of a New Zealand endemic: how and why did populations of Archey’s frog Leiopelma archeyi crash over 1996–2001? Biol Conserv 120:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biosecurity Council (2003) The biosecurity strategy for New Zealand. www.biosecurity.govt.nz/files/biosec/sys/strategy/biosecurity-strategy.pdf. Accessed 21 Sept 2009
  4. Cadi A, Delmas V, Prevot-Julliard A-C, Joly P, Pieau C, Girondot M (2004) Successful reproduction of the introduced slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) in the South of France. Aquatic Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 14:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2003) Reptile-associated salmonellosis: selected states, 1998–2002. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52:1206–1209Google Scholar
  6. Derraik JGB (2008) The potential significance to human health associated with the establishment of the snail Melanoides tuberculata in New Zealand. N Z Med J 121(1280):3221Google Scholar
  7. Duggan IC (2002) First record of a wild population of the tropical snail Melanoides tuberculata in New Zealand natural waters. N Z J Marine Freshwater Res 36:825–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dykes M (2007) Red-eared slider turtle a potential hazard. Manawatu Standard, 10 November 2007. www.stuff.co.nz/manawatu-standard/news/53516. Accessed 21 Sept 2009
  9. ERMA NZ—Environmental Risk Management Authority (2007) New organism incidents: 2006–2007. www.ermanz.govt.nz/no/compliance/incidents0607.html. Accessed 21 Sept 2009
  10. Frith M (2005) Revealed: the illegal online animal trade. The Independent, 16 August 2005. www.independent.co.uk/environment/revealed-the-illegal-online-animal-trade-503078.html. Accessed 21 Sept 2009
  11. Greenemeier L (2008) Un-netting trade in endangered species: eBay vows crackdown on illegal ivory sales. Scientific American, 21 October 2008. www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=ebay-vows-ivory-crack-down. Accessed 21 Sept 2009
  12. IFAW—International Fund for Animal Welfare (2008) Killing with keystrokes. www.ifaw.org/Publications/Program_Publications/Wildlife_Trade/Campaign_Scientific_Publications/asset_upload_file848_49629.pdf. Accessed 21 Sept 2009
  13. IUCN-World Conservation Union (1996) Sphenodon guntheri. Australasian reptile and amphibian specialist group. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 21 Sept 2009
  14. Johnson ML, Speare R (2003) Survival of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in water: quarantine and disease control implications. Emerg Infect Dis 9:922–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kikillus KH, Hare KM, Hartley S (2009) Minimizing false-negatives when predicting the potential distribution of an invasive species: a bioclimatic envelope for the red-eared slider at global and regional scales. Anim Conserv 12(suppl 1):1–11Google Scholar
  16. Loughnan A, Williams R, Keeling S (2007) Fluorescent fish spark GM response. Biosecurity 78:4–5Google Scholar
  17. Lowe S, Browne M, Boudjelas S, De Poorter M (2000). 100 Of the world’s worst invasive alien species—a selection from the global invasive species database. The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), World Conservation Union (IUCN). Aliens 12Google Scholar
  18. Mermin JH, Hoar B, Angulo FJ (1997) Iguanas and Salmonella Marina infection in children: a reflection of the increasing incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Pediatrics 99:399–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Thomas M, Hartnell P (2000) An occurrence of a red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) in the Waikato River at Hamilton, New Zealand. Herpetofauna 30:15–17Google Scholar
  20. Waldman B, van de Wolfshaar KE, Klena JD, Andjic V, Bishop PJ, Norman RJB (2001) Chytridiomycosis in New Zealand frogs. Surveillance 28(3):9–11Google Scholar
  21. Walters L (2009) Ecology and management of the invasive marine macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia. In: Inderjit (ed) Management of invasive weeds. Springer, New York, pp 287–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Woodward DL, Khakhria R, Johnson WM (1997) Human salmonellosis associated with exotic pets. J Clin Microbiol 35:2786–2790PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Disease & Vector Research Group, Institute of Natural SciencesMassey UniversityAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.MAF Biosecurity New ZealandWellingtonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations