Skip to main content

The diversity of juvenile salmonids does not affect their competitive impact on a native galaxiid

Abstract

We used an invaded stream fish community in southern Chile to experimentally test whether the diversity of exotic species affects their competitive impact on a native species. In artificial enclosures an established invasive, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and a potential invader, Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, reduced the growth rate of native peladilla, Aplochiton zebra, by the same amount. In enclosures with both exotic salmonids, the growth rates of all three species were the same as in single exotic treatments. While neither species identity nor diversity appeared to affect competitive interactions in this experiment, the impact of salmonid diversity may vary with the type of interspecific interaction and/or the species identity of the exotics. Our experiment links two prominent concepts in invasion biology by testing whether the result of invasional meltdown, an increase in the diversity of exotic species, affects their impact through interspecific competition, the mechanism invoked by the biotic resistance hypothesis.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  • Armstrong JD, Kemp PS, Kennedy GJA, Ladle M, Milner NJ (2003) Habitat requirements of Atlantic salmon and brown trout in rivers and streams. Fish Res 62:143–170. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(02)00160-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bisson PA (2006) Assessment of the risk of invasion of national forest streams in the Pacific Northwest by farmed Atlantic salmon. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-697. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Station, Portland, OR 28 p

  • Case TJ (1990) Invasion resistance arises in strongly interacting species-rich model competition communities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:9610–9614. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.24.9610

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chesson P (2000) Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 31:343–366. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.31.1.343

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cussac V, Ortubay S, Iglesias G, Milano D, Lattuca ME, Barriga JP et al (2004) The distribution of South American galaxiid fishes: the role of biological traits and post-glacial history. J Biogeogr 31:103–121

    Google Scholar 

  • Diamond J, Case TJ (1986) Overview: introductions, extinctions, exterminations, and invasions. In: Diamond J, Case TJ (eds) Community ecology. Harper & Row, New York, pp 65–79

    Google Scholar 

  • Elton CS (1958) The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London

    Google Scholar 

  • Fridley JD, Stachowicz JJ, Naeem S, Sax DF, Seabloom EW, Smith M et al (2007) The invasion paradox: reconciling pattern and process in species invasions. Ecology 88:3–17. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[3:TIPRPA]2.0.CO;2

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Futuyma DJ, Slatkin M (eds) (1983) Coevolution. Sinauer, Sunderland

    Google Scholar 

  • Hartman GF (1965) The role of behavior in the ecology and interaction of underyearling coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Fish Res Bd Can 22:1035–1081

    Google Scholar 

  • Hearn WE, Kynard BE (1988) Habitat utilization and behavioral interaction of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (S. gairdneri) in tributaries of the White River of Vermont. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:1988–1998

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecol Evol 16:199–204. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02101-2

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leprieur F, Beauchard O, Blanchet S, Oberdorff T, Brosse S (2008) Fish invasions in the world’s rivers: when natural processes are blurred by human activities. PLoS Biol 6:404–410. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060028

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Levine SH (1976) Competitive interactions in ecosystems. Am Nat 110:903–910. doi:10.1086/283116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Losos JB, Leal M, Glor RE, de Queiroz K, Hertz PE, Schettino LR et al (2003) Niche lability in the evolution of a Caribbean lizard community. Nature 424:542–545. doi:10.1038/nature01814

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Macarthur R, Levins R (1967) The limiting similarity, convergence, and divergence of coexisting species. Am Nat 101:377–385. doi:10.1086/282505

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10:689–710. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0689:BICEGC]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marchetti MP, Moyle PB, Levine R (2004) Alien fishes in California watersheds: characteristics of successful and failed invaders. Ecol Appl 14:587–596. doi:10.1890/02-5301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McDowall RM (2006) Crying wolf, crying foul, or crying shame: alien salmonids and a biodiversity crisis in the southern cool-temperate galaxioid fishes? Rev Fish Biol Fish 16:233–422. doi:10.1007/s11160-006-9017-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McDowall RM, Nakaya K (1988) Morphological divergence in the two species of Aplochiton Jenyns (Salmoniformes: Aplochitonidae): a generalist and a specialist. Copeia 1988:233–236. doi:10.2307/1445940

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moyle PB, Light T (1996) Fish invasions in California: do abiotic factors determine success? Ecology 77:1666–1670. doi:10.2307/2265770

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Munoz JL (2006) Synopsis of salmon farming impacts and environmental management in Chile. World Wildlife Fund, Valdivia, Chile, 88 pp

  • Naylor R, Hindar K, Fleming I et al (2005) Fugitive salmon: assessing the risks of escaped fish from net-pen aquaculture. Bioscience 2005:427–437. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0427:FSATRO]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olden JD, Poff NL, Bestgen KR (2006) Life-history strategies predict fish invasions and extirpations in the Colorado River basin. Ecol Monogr 76:25–40. doi:10.1890/05-0330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parker IM et al (1999) Impact: toward a framework for understanding the ecological effects of invaders. Biol Invasions 1:3–19. doi:10.1023/A:1010034312781

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pascual M, Macchi P, Urbanski J, Marcos F, Rossi CR, Novara M et al (2002) Evaluating potential effects of exotic freshwater fish from incomplete species presence–absence data. Biol Invasions 4:101–113. doi:10.1023/A:1020513525528

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pascual M, Cussac V, Dyer B, Soto D, Vigliano P, Ortubay S et al (2007) Freshwater fishes of Patagonia in the 21st century after a hundred years of human settlement, species introductions and environmental change. Aquat Ecosyst Health Manag 10:212–227. doi:10.1080/14634980701351361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Riccardi A (2001) Facilitative interactions among aquatic invaders: is an “invasional meltdown” occurring in the Great Lakes? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:2513–2525. doi:10.1139/cjfas-58-12-2513

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Riccardi A, Atkinson SK (2004) Distinctiveness magnifies the impact of biological invaders in aquatic ecosystems. Ecol Lett 7:781–784. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00642.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roughgarden J (1983) Competition and theory in community ecology. Am Nat 122:583–601. doi:10.1086/284160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shea K, Chesson P (2002) Community ecology as a framework for biological invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 17:170–176. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02495-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simberloff D (2006) Invasional meltdown 6 years later: important phenomenon, unfortunate metaphor, or both? Ecol Lett 9:912–919. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00939.x

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simberloff D, Von Holle B (1999) Positive interactions of nonindigenous species: invasional meltdown? Biol Invasions 1:21–32. doi:10.1023/A:1010086329619

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soto D, Arismendi I, Gonzalez J, Sanzana J, Jara F, Jara C et al (2006) Southern Chile, trout and salmon country: invasion patterns and threats for native species. Rev Chil Hist Nat 79:97–117

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stone L, Roberts A (1991) Conditions for a species to gain advantage from the presence of competitors. Ecology 72:1964–1972. doi:10.2307/1941551

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thorstad EB, Fleming IA, McGinnity P, Soto D, Wennevik V, Whoriskey F (2008) Incidence and impacts of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in nature. Salmon Aquaculture Dialogues, 113 pp

  • Volpe JP, Taylor EB, Rimmer DW, Glickman BW (2000) Evidence of natural reproduction of aquaculture-escaped Atlantic salmon in a coastal British Columbia river. Conserv Biol 14:899–903. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.99194.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Volpe JP, Anholt BR, Glickman BW (2001) Competition among juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss): relevance to invasion potential in British Columbia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:197–207. doi:10.1139/cjfas-58-1-197

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Webb CO, Ackerly DD, McPeek MA, Donoghue MJ (2002) Phylogenies and community ecology. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:475–505. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.33.010802.150448

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Young KA (2003) Evolution of fighting behavior under asymmetric competition: an experimental test with juvenile salmonids. Behav Ecol 14:127–134. doi:10.1093/beheco/14.1.127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Young KA (2004) Asymmetric competition, habitat selection and niche overlap in juvenile salmonids. Ecology 85:134–149. doi:10.1890/02-0402

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman JKH, Vondracek B (2006) Effects of stream enclosures on drifting invertebrates and fish growth. J N Am Benthol Soc 25:453–464. doi:10.1899/0887-3593(2006)25[453:EOSEOD]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Abraham Guevara for allowing us to conduct this experiment on his land and the neighbors of Guardanamo for their assistance and understanding. We thank Sonia Consuegra, Jason Dunham and Ian Fleming for discussions and comments. This work was funded by the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA, UK) Darwin Initiative Grant # 162-15-020 with support from the Universidad de Los Lagos.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kyle A. Young.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Young, K.A., Stephenson, J., Terreau, A. et al. The diversity of juvenile salmonids does not affect their competitive impact on a native galaxiid. Biol Invasions 11, 1955–1961 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-008-9372-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-008-9372-5

Keywords

  • Exotic species diversity
  • Interspecific competition
  • Salmonids
  • Galaxiids
  • Stream enclosure experiment
  • Aquaculture