Biological Invasions

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 1–3 | Cite as

Ecological impacts of non-native invertebrates and fungi on terrestrial ecosystems

  • David W. LangorEmail author
  • Jon Sweeney

Since the arrival of Europeans about 500 years ago, an estimated 50,000 non-native species have been introduced to North America (including Hawaii) (Pimentel et al. 2000). This averages two species every week; however, the rate of entry is generally thought to have been much higher in the last century as the amount of international trade rapidly increased. Non-native or exotic species figure prominently in our lives. Many of the species that we consume are not native. In urban environments we are inundated by exotic species, especially plants; however, a large proportion of exotic invertebrates are also anthropogenic (Langor, unpublished data). In forestry and agriculture many serious insect and fungal pests are non-native. Rivers, lakes and ponds are increasingly becoming breeding grounds for a wide variety of aquatic invaders. Marine environments, especially inland waters, have been colonized by a large number of exotic species.

Since Charles Elton’s seminal book, The Invasion...


  1. Environment Canada (2004) An invasive alien species strategy for Canada. Accessed 12 March 2008
  2. Pimentel D, Lach L, Zuniga R, Morrison D (2000) Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Bioscience 50:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Natural Resources CanadaCanadian Forest ServiceEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Natural Resources CanadaCanadian Forest ServiceFrederictonCanada

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