Biological Invasions

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 135–148 | Cite as

Climate suitability and management of the gypsy moth invasion into Canada

Original Paper

Abstract

The gypsy moth has become established throughout southern Canada east of Lake Superior where the climate is suitable for the completion of its univoltine life cycle. The spread of the gypsy moth to the north and west in Canada has so far been prevented by climatic barriers and host plant availability as well as by aggressive eradication of incipient populations. Climate change is expected to increase the area of climatic suitability and result in greater overlap with susceptible forest types throughout Canada, especially in the west. At the same time, the gypsy moth is spreading west in the USA into states bordering western Canadian provinces. These circumstances all lead to a greatly increased risk of further invasion into Canadian forests by the gypsy moth. Management actions need to be intensified in different ways in different parts of the country to reduce the impacts of spread in eastern Canada and to prevent the gypsy moth from invading western regions.

Keywords

Invasive alien species Lymantria dispar Risk assessment 

References

  1. Allen JC, Foltz JL, Dixon WN, Liebhold AM, Colbert JJ, Régnière J, Gray DR, Wilder JW, Christie I (1993) Will the gypsy moth become a pest in Florida? Fla Entomol 76:102–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beaubien J, Latifovic R, Cihlar J (2002) Land cover of Canada 1998. Special Publication, NBIOME Project. Produced by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing and the Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, available from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown GS (1975) Gypsy moth. In: Prebble ML (ed) Aerial control of forest insects in Canada. Department of the Environment, Ottawa, pp 208–212, Catalogue No. Fo23/19/1975Google Scholar
  4. Doane CC, McManus ML (1981) The gypsy moth: research toward integrated pest management. USDA Forest Service, Technical Bulletin 1584Google Scholar
  5. Dwyer G, Dushoff J, Yee SH (2004) The combined effects of pathogens and predators on insect outbreaks. Nature 430:341–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Elkinton JS, Liebhold AM (1990) Population dynamics of gypsy moth in North America. Annu Rev Entomol 35:571–596Google Scholar
  7. Fosberg MA, Peterson M (1986) Modeling airborne transport of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae. Agric For Meteorol 38:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gray DR (2004) The gypsy moth life stage model: landscape-wide estimates of gypsy moth establishment using a multi-generational phenology model. Ecol Model 176:155–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gray DR, Logan JA, Ravlin FW, Carlson JA (1991) Toward a model of gypsy moth egg phenology using respiration rates of individual eggs to determine temperature-time requirements of prediapause development. Environ Entomol 20:1645–1652Google Scholar
  10. Gray DR, Ravlin FW, Régnière J, Logan JA (1995) Further advances toward a model of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (L.)) egg phenology: Respiration rates and thermal responsiveness during diapause, and age-dependent developmental rates in postdiapause. J Insect Physiol 41:247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gray DR, Ravlin FW, Braine JA (2001) Diapause in the gypsy moth: a model of inhibition and development. J Insect Physiol 47:173–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hastings FL, Hain FP, Smith HR, Cook SP, Monahan JF (2002) Predation of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) pupae in three ecosystems along the southern edge of infestation. Environ Entomol 31:668–675Google Scholar
  13. Isaaks EH, Srivastava RM (1989) An introduction to applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Jobin L (1995) Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. In: Armstrong JA, Ives WGH (eds) Forest insect pests in Canada. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, pp 133–139, Fo24-235/1995EGoogle Scholar
  15. Liebhold AM, Tobin PC (2006) Growth of newly established alien populations: comparison of North American gypsy moth colonies with invasion theory. Popul Ecol 48:253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liebhold AM, Halverson JA, Elmes GA (1992) Gypsy moth invasion in North America: a quantitative analysis. J Biogeogr 19:513–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liebhold AM, Gottschalk KW, Muzika R-M, Montgomery ME, Young R, O’Day K, Kelley B (1995) Suitability of North American tree species to the gypsy moth: a summary of field and laboratory tests. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report NE-211Google Scholar
  18. Logan JA, Casagrande RA, Liebhold AM (1991) Modeling environment for simulation of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larval phenology. Environ Entomol 20:1516–1525Google Scholar
  19. Logan JA, Régnière J, Powell JA (2003) Assessing the impacts of global warming on forest pest dynamics. Front Ecol Environ 1:130–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Logan JA, Régnière J, Gray DR, Munson AS (2007) Risk assessment in face of a changing environment: Gypsy moth and climate change in Utah. Ecol Appl 17:101–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lyons DB, Liebhold AM (1992) Spatial distribution and hatch times of egg masses of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Environ Entomol 21:354–358Google Scholar
  22. Mayo JH, Straka TJ, Leonard DS (2003) The cost of slowing the spread of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). J Econ Entomol 96:1448–1454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Nalder IA, Wein RW (1998) Spatial interpolation of climatic normals: test of a new method in the Canadian boreal forest. Agric For Meteorol 92:211–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nealis VG (2002) Gypsy moth in Canada: case study of an invasive insect. In: Claudi R, Nantel P, Muckle-Jeffs E (eds) Alien invaders in Canada’s waters, wetlands, and forests. Natural Resources Canada, pp 151–159, Fo42-329/2002EGoogle Scholar
  25. Nealis VG, Erb S (1993) A sourcebook for management of the gypsy moth. Canadian Forestry Service, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Fo42-193/1993EGoogle Scholar
  26. Nealis VG, Roden PM, Ortiz DA (1999) Natural mortality of the gypsy moth along a gradient of infestation. Can Entomol 131:507–519Google Scholar
  27. Phero Tech Inc (1994) A risk assessment of European gypsy moth in British Columbia. Prepared by Deloitte and Touche Management Consultants, Guelph, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  28. Pitt JP, Régnière J, Worner S (2007) Risk assessment of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modeling. Int J Biometeorol 51:295–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Power JM (1986) FIDSINFOBASE: the forest insect and disease survey information system. Canadian Forest Service, Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Information Report PI-X-65Google Scholar
  30. Price DT, McKenney DW, Caya D, Côté H (2001) Transient climate change scenarios for high resolution assessment of impacts on Canada’s forest ecosystems. Report to Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) and CCISGoogle Scholar
  31. Reardon RC, Leonard DS, Mastro VC, McLane W, Leonhardt BA, Talley S, Thorpe K, Webb RE (1998) Using mating distruption to manage gypsy moth: a review. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, FHTET-98-01Google Scholar
  32. Régnière J (1996) Generalized approach to landscape-wide seasonal forecasting with temperature-driven simulation models. Environ Entomol 25:869–881Google Scholar
  33. Régnière J, Nealis VG (2002) Modelling seasonality of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), to evaluate probability of its persistence in novel environments. Can Entomol 134:805–824Google Scholar
  34. Régnière J, Sharov A (1998) Phenology of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) male flight and the effect of moth dispersal in heterogeous landscapes. Int J Biometeorol 41:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Régnière J, St-Amant R (2007) Stochastic simulation of daily air temperature and precipitation from monthly normals in North America north of Mexico. Int J Biometeorol 51:415–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sharov AA, Liebhold AM (1998a) Bioeconomics of managing the spread of exotic pest species with barrier zones. Ecol Appl 8:833–845Google Scholar
  37. Sharov AA, Liebhold AM (1998b) Model of slowing the spread of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) with a barrier zone. Ecol Appl 8:1170–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sharov AA, Liebhold AM, Roberts EA (1998) Optimizing the use of barrier zones to slow the spread of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in North America. J Econ Entomol 91:165–174Google Scholar
  39. Sharov AA, Pijanowski BC, Liebhold AM, Gage SH (1999) What affects the rate of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) spread: winter temperature or forest susceptibility? Agric For Entomol 1:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sharov AA, Leonard D, Liebhold AM, Roberts EA, Dickerson W (2002) “Slow the Spread”: a national program to contain the gypsy moth. J For 100:30–36Google Scholar
  41. Sheehan KA (1992) User’s guide for GMPHEN: gypsy moth phenology model. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report NE-158Google Scholar
  42. Sullivan CR, Wallace DR (1972) The potential northern dispersal of the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Can Entomol 104:1349–1355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Thorpe K, Reardon R, Tcheslavskaia K, Leonard D, Mastro V (2006) A review of the use of mating distruption to manage gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, FHTET-2006-13Google Scholar
  44. Villedieu Y, van Frankenhuyzen K (2004) Epizootic occurrence of Entomophaga maimaiga at the leading edge of an expanding population of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in north-central Ontario. Can Entomol 136:875–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Weseloh RM (1997) Evidence for limited dispersal of larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Can Entomol 129:355–361Google Scholar
  46. Weseloh RM (2003) People and the gypsy moth: a story of human interactions with an invasive species. Am Entomol 49:180–190Google Scholar
  47. Williams DW, Liebhold AM (1995) Forest defoliators and climatic change: potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Environ Entomol 24:1–9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacques Régnière
    • 1
  • Vince Nealis
    • 2
  • Kevin Porter
    • 3
  1. 1.Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest ServiceQuebecCanada
  2. 2.Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest ServiceVictoriaCanada
  3. 3.Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest ServiceFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations