International shipping has been the dominant vector of nonindigenous species introductions to the Laurentian Great Lakes over the past century. Apparent ballast-mediated invasions have been recorded in recent years, despite the implementation of voluntary ballast water exchange regulations in 1989. Since unregulated ‘no-ballast-on-board’ vessels currently dominate inbound traffic to the Great Lakes, it has been proposed that live or dormant organisms contained in residual ballast of these vessels may be partially responsible for recent invasions. Alternatively, euryhaline species may pose a significant invasion threat because they can potentially survive ballast exchange. In this study, we explored whether exposure to open-ocean water (32‰) reduced the viability of invertebrate diapausing eggs in ballast sediments. Sediments collected from three transoceanic ships and from three freshwater habitats were exposed to open-ocean seawater. Egg viability, assessed as the abundance of taxa hatched between exposed and unexposed sediments, was not affected by saltwater exposure in any experiment. Species richness of hatched diapausing eggs was reduced by saltwater exposure in only one of seven trials. Our results indicate that oligostenohaline zooplankton may pose an invasion risk because their diapausing eggs are largely resistant to exposure to open-ocean saltwater.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
SA Bailey IC Duggan CDA Overdijk Particlevan PT Jenkins HJ MacIsaac (2003) ArticleTitleViability of invertebrate diapausing eggs collected from residual ballast sediment Limnology and Oceanography 48 1701–1710
SA Bailey IC Duggan CDA Overdijk Particlevan TH Johengen DF Reid HJ MacIsaac (2004) ArticleTitleSalinity tolerance of diapausing eggs of freshwater zooplankton Freshwater Biology 49 286–295 Occurrence Handle10.1111/j.1365-2427.2004.01185.x
MD Balcer NL Korda SI Dodson (1984) Zooplankton of the Great Lakes University of Wisconsin Press Madison 174
R Burgess (2001) ArticleTitleAn improved protocol for separating meiofauna from sediments using colloidal silica sols Marine Ecology Progress Series 214 161–165
RI Colautti AJ Niimi CDA Overdijk Particlevan EL Mills K Holeck HJ MacIsaac (2003) Spatial and temporal analysis of transoceanic shipping vectors to the Great Lakes GM Ruiz JT Carlton RN Mack (Eds) Invasion Pathways: Analysis of Invasion Patterns and Pathway Management. Island Press Washington 227–246
IC Duggan JD Green RJ Shiel (2002a) ArticleTitleDistribution of rotifer assemblages in North Island, New Zealand, lakes: relationships to environmental and historical factors Freshwater Biology 47 195–206 Occurrence Handle10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00742.x
IC Duggan JD Green RJ Shiel (2002b) ArticleTitleRotifer resting egg densities in lakes of different trophic state, and their assessment using emergence and egg counts Archiv für Hydrobiologie 153 409–420
JJ Gilbert (1974) ArticleTitleDormancy in rotifers Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 93 490–513
GD Grice NH Marcus (1981) ArticleTitleDormant eggs of marine copepods Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 19 125–140
IA Grigorovich R Colautti EL Mills K Holeck A Ballert HJ MacIsaac (2003) ArticleTitleBallast-mediated animal introductions in the Laurentian Great Lakes: retrospective and prospective analyses Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60 740–756 Occurrence Handle10.1139/f03-053
SA Halse RJ Shiel WD Williams (1998) ArticleTitleAquatic invertebrates of Lake Gregory, northwestern Australia, in relation to salinity and ionic composition Hydrobiologia 381 15–29 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1003263105122 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXitl2rtbc%3D
UT Hammer (1986) Saline Lake Ecosystems of the World. Monographiae Biologicae 59 W. Junk Dordrecht, The Netherlands 603
PDN Hebert TJ Crease (1980) ArticleTitleClonal existence in Daphnia pulex (Leydig): another planktonic paradox Science 207 1363–1365
CE Lee MA Bell (1999) ArticleTitleCauses and consequences of recent freshwater invasions by saltwater animals Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14 284–288 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01596-7 Occurrence Handle10370267
Locke A, Reid DM, Sprules WG, Carlton JT and van Leeuwen H (1991) Effectiveness of mid-ocean exchange in controlling freshwater and coastal zooplankton in ballast water. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 1822
A Locke DM Reid HC Leeuwen Particlevan WG Sprules JT Carlton (1993) ArticleTitleBallast water exchange as a means of controlling dispersal of freshwater organisms by ships Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50 2086–2093
HJ MacIsaac TC Robbins MA Lewis (2002) ArticleTitleModeling ships’ ballast water as invasion threats to the Great Lakes Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59 1245–1256 Occurrence Handle10.1139/f02-090
NH Marcus RV Lutz (1998) ArticleTitleLongevity of subitaneous and diapause eggs of Centropages hamatusi (Copepoda: Calanoida) from the northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Biology 131 249–257 Occurrence Handle10.1007/s002270050317
L May (1986) ArticleTitleRotifer sampling – A complete species list from one visit? Hydrobiologia 134 117–120
EL Mills JH Leach JT Carlton CL Secor (1993) ArticleTitleExotic species in the Great Lakes: a history of biotic crises and anthropogenic introductions Journal of Great Lakes Research 19 1–54
T Nogrady H Segers (2002) Rotifera, Volume 6: Asplanchnidae, Gastropdidae, Lindiidae, Microcodidae, Sychaetidae and Trochosphaeridae Backhuys Publishers Leiden, The Netherlands 264
A Ricciardi (2001) ArticleTitleFacilitative interactions among aquatic invaders: is an “invasional meltdown” occurring in the Great Lakes? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58 2513–2525 Occurrence Handle10.1139/cjfas-58-12-2513
A Ricciardi HJ MacIsaac (2000) ArticleTitleRecent mass invasion of the North American Great Lakes by Ponto-Caspian species Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15 62–65 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01745-0 Occurrence Handle10652557
A Ricciardi JB Rasmussen (1998) ArticleTitlePredicting the identity and impact of future biological invaders: a priority for aquatic resource management Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55 1759–1765 Occurrence Handle10.1139/cjfas-55-7-1759
SS Schwartz PD Hebert (1987) ArticleTitleMethods for the activation of the resting eggs of Daphnia Freshwater Biology 17 373–379
H Segers (1996) ArticleTitleThe biogeography of littoral Lecane Rotifera Hydrobiologia 323 169–197 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00007845
H Segers (2001) ArticleTitleZoogeography of the Southeast Asian Rotifera Hydrobiologia 446 IssueID447 233–246 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1017524011783
Stemberger RS (1979) A guide to rotifers of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Report no. EPA-600/4-79-021. Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Office of Research and Development. US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio
United States Coast Guard (1993) Ballast water management for vessels entering the Great Lakes. Code of Federal Regulations 33-CFR Part 151.1510
About this article
Cite this article
Gray, D.K., Bailey, S.A., Duggan, I.C. et al. Viability of invertebrate diapausing eggs exposed to saltwater: implications for Great Lakes’ ship ballast management. Biol Invasions 7, 531–539 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-004-6347-z
- ballast sediments
- ballast water exchange
- nonindigenous species
- resting eggs
- salinity tolerance