Skip to main content
Log in

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles mediate bacterial transformation: a nanobiotechnological approach

  • Original Research Paper
  • Published:
Biotechnology Letters Aims and scope Submit manuscript

This article was retracted on 19 April 2015

Abstract

Transformation of bacteria is an important step in molecular biology. Viral and non-virus-based gene delivery techniques, including chemical/biological and physical approaches, have been applied to bacterial, mammalian and plant cells. E. coli is not competent to take up DNA; hence, different methods are used to incorporate plasmid DNA. A novel method has been developed using glutathione-functionalized gold nanoparticles to mediate transformation of plasmid DNA (pUC19) into E. coli DH5α that does not require the preparation of competent cells. The glutathione-functionalized gold nanoparticles acted as a vector and facilitated the entry of DNA into the host cell. The method also gave a higher transformation efficiency (4.2 × 107/μg DNA) compared to 2.3 × 105/μg DNA using the conventional CaCl2-mediated method. It was also non-toxic to the bacterium making it suitable for biotechnological applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Cai W, Gao T, Hong H, Sun J (2008) Applications of gold nanoparticles in cancer nanotechnology. Nanotech Sci Appl 1:17–32

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chan WCW, Nie S (1998) Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection. Science 281:2016–2018

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chatterjee S, Bandyopadhyay A, Sarkar K (2011) Effect of iron oxide and gold nanoparticles on bacterial growth leading towards biological application. J Nanobiotechnol 9:34–40

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chithrani BV, Ghazani AA, Chan WCW (2006) Determining the size and shape dependence of gold nanoparticle uptake into mammalian cells. Nano Lett 6:662–668

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen SN, Chang ACY, Hsu L (1972) Nonchromosomal antibiotic resistance in bacteria: genetic transformation of E. coli by R-factor DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci 69:2110–2114

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman CM, McCusker CD, Yilmaz T, Rotello VM (2004) Toxicity of gold nanoparticles functionalized with cationic and anionic side chains. Bioconj Chem 15:897–900

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Inoue H, Nojima H, Okayama H (1990) High efficiency transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids. Gene 96:23–28

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kim E-Y, Schulz R, Swantek P, Kunstman K, Malim MH, Wolinsky SM (2012) Gold nanoparticle-mediated gene delivery induces widespread changes in the expression of innate immunity genes. Gene Ther 19:347–353

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lederberg EM, Cohen SN (1974) Transformation of Salmonella typhimurium by plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid. J Bacteriol 119:1072–1074

    PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Michod R, Wojciechowski M, Hoelzer M (1988) DNA repair and the evolution of transformation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Genetics 118:31–39

    PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nishimura A, Morita M, Nishimura Y, Sugino Y (1990) A rapid and highly efficient method for preparation of competent Escherichia coli cells. Nucl Acids Res 18:61–69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pinto-Alphandary H, Andremont A, Couvreur P (2000) Targeted delivery of antibiotics using liposomes and nanoparticles: research and applications. Int J Antimicrob Agents 13:155–168

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Prakash DG, Anish RV, Jagadeesh G, Chakravorty D (2011) Bacterial transformation using micro-shock waves. Anal Biochem 419:292–301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sandhu KK, McIntosh CM, Simard JM, Smith SW, Rotello VM (2002) Gold nanoparticle-mediated transfection of mammalian cells. Bioconj Chem 13:3–6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schaaff TG, Whetten RL (2000) Giant gold-glutathione cluster compounds: intense optical activity in metal-based transitions. J Phys Chem B 104:2630–2641

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Song Y, Hahn T, Thompson IP, Nason TJ, Preston GM, Li G, Paniwnyk L, Huang WE (2007) Ultrasound-mediated DNA transfer for bacteria. Nucl Acids Res 35:19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang X, Nakata Y, Li H-O, Zhang M, Gao H, Fujita A, Sakatsuma O, Ohta T, Yokoyama K (1994) The optimization of preparation of competent cells for transformation of E coli. Nucl Acids Res 22:2857–2858

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wirth R, Friesenegger A, Fiedler S (1989) Transformation of various species of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to 11 different genera by electroporation. Mol Gen Genet 216:175–177

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research work has been carried out with the financial support of Department of Science & Technology, Government of India (Project-Nanomission: SR/NM/NS-48/2009) and University of Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Keka Sarkar.

Additional information

A paper by Saptarshi Chatterjee and Keka Sarkar that was published in this journal is now retracted due to the deliberate and fraudulent use of data in the paper that had previously appeared in other papers of these two authors and in other papers of Dr Sarkar.

The paper in question is: “Surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles mediate bacterial transformation; a nanobiotechnological approach”; Biotechnology Letters 2014 36:265-271, by S Chatterjee and K Sarkar.

In this paper, the authors used previously published data from other publications of theirs: Chatterjee, Bandyopadhyay and Sarkar “Effect of iron oxide and gold nanoparticles on bacterial growth leading towards biological application” in Journal of Nanobiotechnology 2011 9:34

Two figures in the paper in Biotechnology Letters had been taken from this paper: Figure 2c was identical to Figure 3 in the J Nanobiotech paper and Figure 4 (inset) was identical to Figure 7 (left). No acknowledgement was given that these figures were identical. In addition, the two figures illustrated results from apparently different experiments.

In addition, Figure 2c in the Biotech Letters paper was identical to a figure (Figure 1) in another publication of Dr Sarkar and colleagues: “Bacterial growth response on interaction with iron oxide and gold nanoparticles: Measuring risk to the environment” IEEE 2011 (International Conference on Nanoscience, Technology and Societal Implications; doi 10.1109/NSTSI.2011.6111986) pages 1-6. Figure 2b in the IEEE publication was also repeated in the Biotechnology Letters paper (Figure 4) without any acknowledgement of prior publication. Figure 2a in the Biotechnology Letters paper was also used without modification in another publication of this group: “Localized surface plasmon resonance-based DNA detection in solution using gold-decorated supraparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanocomposite”; Bandyopadhyay and Sarkar in Analytical Biochemistry 2014 465:156-163.

As we have been made aware of other duplications of data in other papers of Dr Sarkar, and also the use of other people’s data and figures as deliberate acts of plagiarism, we have come to the conclusion that this person has knowingly and deliberately used the same data and figures to illustrate results from different scientific experiments in her various publications. Therefore the veracity of the work in the paper of Chatterjee and Sarkar that was published in this journal, and indeed in other journals that have been published in the last five years, cannot be vouchsafed and must be regarded as fraudulent or potentially fraudulent. The paper in Biotechnology Letters is therefore retracted.

An inquiry into Dr Sarkar’s publications has been conducted by her university (University of Kalyani, West Bengal, India) and has resulted in a severe reprimand and restrictions concerning her future in the university.

Colin Ratledge, Editor in Chief

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (PDF 221 kb)

About this article

Cite this article

Chatterjee, S., Sarkar, K. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles mediate bacterial transformation: a nanobiotechnological approach. Biotechnol Lett 36, 265–271 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529-013-1360-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529-013-1360-x

Keywords

Navigation