The antimicrobial peptide, nisin, produced by several strains of Lactococcus lactis, which belongs to the Class I bacteriocins called lantibiotics, is a small (3.4 kDa), 34-amino acid, cationic, hydrophobic peptide and has the five characteristic (β-methyl)lanthionine rings formed by significant post-translational modification. A cluster of 11 genes has been involved in the biosynthesis of nisin and are proposed to be transcriptionally arranged as nisA(Z)BTCIP, nisRK, and nisFEG. The biosynthesis of nisin is regulated in a growth-phase-dependent manner including nisin-mediated induction which occurs via NisRK two-component regulatory system. This review outlines some of the more recent developments in the properties, regulation and applications of nisin biosynthesis.
Key wordsnisin nisin biosynthesis nisin-mediated induction regulation two-component regulatory system
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Cheigh CI, Lee SJ, Pyun YR, Chung YJ, Hwang YS, An DJ, Park H, (2005b) The effect of carbon sources on nisin Z biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A164. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (in press et al. (2005b). -->)Google Scholar
- Ruyter, PGGA, Kuipers, OP, Beerthuyzen, MM, Alen, IJ, Vos, WM 1996aFunctional analysis of promoters in the nisin gene cluster of Lactococcus lactisJ. Bacteriol.17834343439Google Scholar
- Ruyter, PGGA, Kuipers, OP, Vos, WM 1996bControlled gene expression systems for Lactococcus lactis with the food-grade inducer nisinAppl. Environ. Microbiol.6236623667Google Scholar
- Kleerebezem, M, Beerthuyzen, MM, Vaughan, EE, Vos, WM, Kuipers, OP 1997bControlled gene expression systems for lactic acid bacteria: transferable nisin inducible expression cassettes for Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus sppAppl. Environ. Microbiol.6345814584Google Scholar
- Kleerebezem, M, Vos, WM, Kuipers, OP 1999The lantibiotics nisin and subtilin act as extracellular regulators of their own biosynthesisDunny, GMWinans, SC eds. Cell-cell signaling in bacteriaWashington DCASM Press159174Google Scholar
- Kuipers, OP, Beerthuyzen, MM, Siezen, RJ, Vos, WM 1993Characterization of the nisin gene cluster nisABTCIPR of Lactococcus lactis. Requirement of expression of the nisA and nisI genes for development of immunity. EurJ. Biochem.216281291Google Scholar
- Parente, E, Ricciardi, A, Addario, G 1994Influence of pH on growth and bacteriocin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 140 MWC during batch fermentationAppl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.41388394Google Scholar
- Ra, R, Qiao, M, Immonen, T, Pujana, I, Saris, PEJ 1996Genes responsible for nisin synthesis, regulation and immunity form a regulon of two operons and are induced by nisin in Lactococcus lactis N8Microbiology14212821288Google Scholar
- Ray, B, Daeschel, MA 1992Food Biopreservatives of Microbial Origin. Boca Raton CRC PressFloridaGoogle Scholar
- Meer, JR, Polman, J, Beerthuyzen, MM, Siezen, RJ, Kuipers, OP, Vos, WM 1993Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis nisin A operon genes nisP, encoding a subtilisin-like serine protease involved in precursor processing, and nisR, encoding a regulatory protein involved in nisin biosynthesisJ. Bacteriol.17525782588PubMedGoogle Scholar