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Characterization of Gladiolus Germplasm Using Morphological, Physiological, and Molecular Markers

Abstract

Estimation of variability and genetic relationships among breeding materials is one of the important strategies in crop improvement programs. Morphological (plant height, spike length, a number of florets/spike), physiological (chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and rapid light curve parameters) and Directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD) markers were used to investigate the relationships among 50 Gladiolus cultivars. Cluster analysis based on morphological data, physiological characteristics, molecular markers, and cumulative data discriminated all cultivars into seven, five, seven, and six clusters in the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, respectively. The results of the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) also supported UPGMA clustering. Variations among the Gladiolus cultivars at phenotypic level could be due to the changes in physiology, environmental conditions, and genetic variability. DAMD analysis using 10 primers produced 120 polymorphic bands with 80% polymorphism showing polymorphic information content (PIC = 0.28), Marker index (MI = 3.37), Nei’s gene diversity (h = 0.267), and Shannon’s information index (I = 0.407). Plant height showed a positive significant correlation with Spike length and Number of florets/spike (r = 0.729, p < 0.001 and r = 0.448, p = 0.001 respectively). Whereas, Spike length showed positive significant correlation with Number of florets/spike (r = 0.688, p < 0.001) and Chlorophyll content showed positive significant correlation with Electron transport rate (r = 0.863, p < 0.001). Based on significant morphological variations, high physiological performance, high genetic variability, and genetic distances between cultivars, we have been able to identify diverse cultivars of Gladiolus that could be the potential source as breeding material for further genetic improvement in this ornamental crop.

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Correspondence to T. S. Rana.

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10528_2017_9835_MOESM1_ESM.pptx

Fig. S1 Two-dimensional plot of the first (87.62%) and second (11.72%) principal coordinate axes, derived from principal coordinate analysis of morphological data of 50 Gladiolus cultivars. (Numbers are equivalent to those listed in Table 1). Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 72 kb)

10528_2017_9835_MOESM2_ESM.pptx

Fig. S2 Two-dimensional plot of the first (98.74%) and second (0.90%) principal coordinate axes, derived from principal coordinate analysis of physiological data of 50 Gladiolus cultivars. (Numbers are equivalent to those listed in Table 1). Supplementary material 2 (PPTX 54 kb)

10528_2017_9835_MOESM3_ESM.pptx

Fig. S3 Two-dimensional plot of the first (8.59%) and second (7.30%) principal coordinate axes, derived from principal coordinate analysis of DAMD data of 50 Gladiolus cultivars. (Numbers are equivalent to those listed in Table 1). Supplementary material 3 (PPTX 70 kb)

Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 12 kb)

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Singh, N., Pal, A.K., Roy, R.K. et al. Characterization of Gladiolus Germplasm Using Morphological, Physiological, and Molecular Markers. Biochem Genet 56, 128–148 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10528-017-9835-4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10528-017-9835-4

Keywords

  • Chlorophyll fluorescence
  • Chlorophyll content
  • Genetic variation
  • Molecular markers