Use of Indocyanine Green in Nanocomposite Solders to Increase Strength and Homogeneity in Laser Welding of Tendons
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The ability to form sutures in bovine tendon using a prototype laser biological tissue welding device was demonstrated. New solder compositions are proposed, based on carbon nanotubules (0.1% w/w) in an aqueous matrix of bovine serum albumin (25% w/w) supplemented with the medical laser dye indocyanine green (0.01% w/w). The absorption peak of the nanocomposition solder coincided with the apparatus wavelength of 800 nm. The use of indocyanine green as radiation absorber in nanocomposition solders provided increases in the strength of laser weld sutures in tendons. The maximum level of ~0.82 MPa was achieved using a solder based on multiwalled carbon nanotubules. X-Ray microtomography demonstrated uniformity in the joining of tendons in depth and length during formation of nanocomposite between the two welded biological tissue fragments. Growth of fibroblast cells on the composite surface formed at the site of the laser weld suture was demonstrated.
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