Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the main fungal diseases affecting bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) crops worldwide, resulting not only in important economic losses due to reduced grain yield and quality, but also in grain safety due to mycotoxins contamination, mainly deoxynivalenol (DON). TRI5 gene catalyzes the first step in DON biosynthesis and its expression is used as an indicator for trichothecene synthesis induction. In Argentina, FHB is caused by Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto when humid weather and warm temperature conditions predominate around flowering. Commonly used strategies to manage FHB are not highly efficient if individually applied and under this scenario. Biological control appears as a viable approach than can be included in an integrated FHB management. Previous studies carried out by our research group proved the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus velezensis RC 218 in reducing FHB in bread and durum wheat, under greenhouse and field conditions. In this study, we analyzed F. graminearum sensu stricto penetration, growth and TRI5 gene expression when B. velezensis RC 218 was applied on wheat spikes. Spike tissue sections were obtained and observed under different microscopic techniques. We observed that the biocontrol agent (BCA) was able to reduce F. graminearum infection and trichothecene accumulation in bread wheat susceptible cultivar BioInta1005. Data on tissue analysis suggest B. velezensis RC 218 induced cell wall thickening in the host tissues immediately surrounding the F. graminearum infection site, preventing cell plasmolysis and collapse.
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The authors sincerely thank Hugo Quiroz, for help with light microscopy sample preparation, Andrea L. Cristofolini and Cecilia Sampedro for assistance with light and fluorescence microscopy respectively.
This work was supported by grants from National Agency for Scientific and Technological Promotion, Argentina (ANPCyT) PICT 2015/1253 and PICT 2017/2554.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Handling Editor: Jesus Mercado Blanco.
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Cantoro, R., Palazzini, J.M., Yerkovich, N. et al. Bacillus velezensis RC 218 as a biocontrol agent against Fusarium graminearum: effect on penetration, growth and TRI5 expression in wheat spikes. BioControl 66, 259–270 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-020-10062-7
- Biological control
- Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto
- Fusarium head blight
- Bacillus velezensis RC218
- Triticum aestivum