We investigated factors which may determine realised paternity following multiple mating in a promiscuous ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), namely the mating order and ability of males of different morphs to fertilize females. In experiments using males of two colour morphs, we found that the first male had a reproductive advantage over the second male (sperm precedence P2 = 0.38). Males of the melanic morph spectabilis had a reproductive advantage over males of the semi-melanic morph axyridis (P2 = 0.35). Analysis of paternity using microsatellites applied to young larvae, which avoids possible differential mortality of progeny, confirmed the precedence of the first male and higher paternity rate of colour morphs that are more frequent in the wild. Hatchability of eggs increased from 65% after the first mating to 85% after the second mating delayed by five days. Average duration of mating was 157 min and did not differ between the first and second mating and between the colour morphs of males.
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The study was conducted with support from the Ministry of Agriculture, grant number QH82047, mobility project ASRT-16-06 funded by the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, and with institutional support RVO:60077344 in Biology Center. We are grateful to Tom Fayle and John Sloggett for their valuable comments and corrections of the early version of the manuscript and an anonymous reviewer for his persistent force on the later improvement.
Handling Editor: Helen Roy.
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Awad, M., Piálek, L., Krejčí, A. et al. Paternity following multiple mating in ladybird Harmonia axyridis . BioControl 62, 297–307 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-017-9806-z
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