, Volume 62, Issue 4, pp 545–555 | Cite as

Formulation of the biocontrol agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CPA-8 using different approaches: liquid, freeze-drying and fluid-bed spray-drying

  • A. Gotor-Vila
  • J. Usall
  • R. Torres
  • M. Abadias
  • N. TeixidóEmail author


The present work focuses on the assessment and comparison of three different formulation technologies and the effect of protectants on cell viability, storage stability and antagonistic activity of the biocontrol agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CPA-8. Cultures were concentrated with different protective substances such as MgSO4, sucrose and skimmed milk (SM) and subjected to liquid formulation, freeze-drying and fluid-bed spray-drying. Results showed that CPA-8 freeze-dried cells without protectants or amended with SM suffered the highest losses in cell viability (0.41−0.48 log). Moreover, the cell viability of the tested freeze-dried products decreased after four months of storage at both tested temperatures (4 and 22 °C). Otherwise, liquid and fluid-bed spray-dried products were stable for four months at 4 °C and for 12 months at 22, 4 and −20 °C, respectively, and no effect of the protectants was observed. The most suitable CPA-8 products were then tested against Monilinia laxa and M. fructicola in artificially wounded nectarines and in all cases the antagonistic activity was maintained similar to fresh cells. The efficacy results revealed that the formulation process did not affect the biocontrol potential of CPA-8. This work led us to conclude that effective formulations with final concentrations ranging from 1.93 × 109–2.98 × 109 CFU ml−1 and from 4.76 × 109–1.03 × 1010 CFU g−1 were obtained for liquid and dried products, respectively. Additionally, the suitability of the fluid-bed spray drying technology should be taken into account to develop a stable and effective CPA-8 product for practical applications to control brown rot in stone fruit.


Bacillus spp. Protectants Shelf-life Monilinia spp. Biocontrol efficacy 



This research was supported by the European project BIOCOMES FP7-612713 and by the Secretaria d’Universitats i Recerca del Departament d’Economia i Coneixement de la Generalitat de Catalunya for the PhD Grant 2014-FI-B00367 (Amparo M. Gotor Vila). The authors also thank CERCA Program (Generalitat de Catalunya).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Gotor-Vila
    • 1
  • J. Usall
    • 1
  • R. Torres
    • 1
  • M. Abadias
    • 1
  • N. Teixidó
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.IRTA, XaRTA-Postharvest, Edifici Fruitcentre, Parc Científic i Tecnològic Agroalimentari de LleidaLleidaSpain

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