Trichoderma atroviride SC1 prevents Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum infection of grapevine plants during the grafting process in nurseries
Phaeoacremonium aleophilum (Pal) and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch) are commonly and consistently found in the wood discoloration of the three tracheomycotic syndromes of esca and are thus considered the causal agents of this phaeotracheomycotic complex. Infections commonly occur in vineyards or derive from infected mother plants. However the grafting process in nurseries can pose an additional risk of infections. Trichoderma atroviride SC1, applied at the hydration, callusing and pre-planting stages, effectively controlled infection of Pal and Pch, hydration treatments proving the most effective. The viability of conidia of T. atroviride SC1 in the suspension used to soak the grapevine cuttings did not change within the first 72 h at temperatures of between 5 and 15 °C and it was possible to re-use the suspension at least four times within 48 h without losing viability, making the treatment a practical and valuable measure for nurseries.
KeywordsWood diseases Vitis vinifera Biofungicide Esca Brown wood streaking Petri disease Grapevine leaf stripe disease
This study was financially supported by the EU INNOVA project (FP7-People-2012-IAPP, grant agreement 324416). We thank Denise Ress, Oscar Giovannini, Carmela Sicher, Christian Cainelli and Veronica Leoni for their help with lab and field experiments.
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