Olfactory cues in host and host-plant recognition of a polyphagous ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani
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Olfactory bioassays were performed to investigate the specific odors utilized as host location cues by the beetle parasitoid, Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a primary biological control agent against Monochamus alternates (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), the most important vector beetle of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), the causal agent for pine wilt disease. Female parasitoids were tested with volatiles and extracts derived from their host beetle. Behavioral assays (Y-olfactometer bioassay and circle arena) demonstrated the response of female parasitoids to odors from host plants damaged by beetle larvae and from their excreta. When available contact cues were additionally provided, the parasitoids showed particularly strong preferences for samples of fresh brown frass of larval beetles. To confirm the electroantennograms (EAG) activity of identified compounds, analyses were repeated with a synthetic blend composed predominantly of compounds in the crude extracts that had revealed apparent electrophysiological activity. Antennal responses to four monoterpenes and three oxygenated monoterpenes were among the strongest, which indicated their potential for use in development of semichemial-based management of the beetle.
KeywordsHymenoptera Bethylidae Semiochemicals Host location Behavioral experiments EAG
We thank Dr. Daniel R. Miller (USDA Forest Service) for his review of an earlier version of the manuscript. Thanks also extend to two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments which improved the quality of the manuscript greatly. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31370650 and 31360519), the CAS Knowledge Innovation Key Research Program (KSCX2-EW-05) and the State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents (ChineseIPM1205).
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