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BioControl

, Volume 54, Issue 5, pp 651–661 | Cite as

Lethal and sub-lethal effects of insecticides on natural enemies of citrus scale pests

  • Pompeo SumaEmail author
  • Lucia Zappalà
  • Gaetana Mazzeo
  • Gaetano Siscaro
Forum paper

Abstract

Laboratory trials were conducted to test the side-effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos-methyl, buprofezin, pyriproxifen, spinosad and a narrow range mineral oil on Aphytis melinus DeBach, Coccophagus lycimnia Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The effects of chlorpyrifos-methyl, spinosad and pyriproxifen were also investigated in semi-field conditions on L. dactylopii. Contact toxicity on adult female parasitoids after 24, 48 and 72 h, the effects on their fertility as well as the sex ratio of the progeny were measured. In the laboratory trials chlorpyrifos-methyl and spinosad caused 100% mortality on all tested parasitoids just 24 h after the treatment. According to the IOBC classification, the mineral oil was slightly harmful on L. dactylopii; buprofezin was harmful on C. lycimnia, and slightly harmful on L. dactylopii and A. melinus; pyriproxifen resulted moderately harmful on C. lycimnia and slightly harmful on L. dactylopii and A. melinus. The progeny production of each L. dactylopii surviving female treated with buprofezin was not affected by the treatment while in the case of A. melinus it was significantly reduced. C. lycimnia females treated with pyriproxifen did not produce any progeny. In semi-field conditions the tested insecticides were less harmful to L. dactylopii adults but, although none of them influenced the progeny production of the survived females, the longevity was negatively affected.

Keywords

Side-effects Hymenoptera parasitoids Semi-field Aphytis melinus Coccophagus lycimnia Leptomastix dactylopii 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are very grateful to two anonymous reviewers for most valuable comments improving the manuscript considerably.

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Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pompeo Suma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lucia Zappalà
    • 1
  • Gaetana Mazzeo
    • 1
  • Gaetano Siscaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Fitosanitarie, Sezione Entomologia agrariaUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly

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