Skip to main content

Biological control of Septoria tritici blotch on wheat by Trichoderma spp. under field conditions in Argentina

Abstract

Biological control is an additional tool available for the design of more sustainable control strategies of wheat diseases. Trichoderma spp. have previously been used as biocontrol agents to protect wheat plants against leaf spots diseases in Argentina, but the information from field assays is scarce. The effectiveness of four Trichoderma harzianum strains and one T. koningii strain in reducing the incidence and severity of the leaf blotching of wheat caused by Septoria tritici blotch (STB) under two formulation conditions, spore suspension and the coated-seed technique, was studied under field conditions. Significant differences between wheat cultivars, formulation types and growth stages were found. In 2003, at the tillering stage, all of the treatments tested (except SST1 for incidence) effectively reduced the incidence or the severity of the disease compared to the control. Similarly, in 2004, ten of the treatments reduced the severity at tillering. At the heading stage, none of the treatments tested caused a significant decrease of the disease. These results indicated, therefore, that the antagonism was effective at an early stage of the disease only. Comparing both formulations, spraying spore suspension onto leaves and the coated-seed application technique, both were effective in decreasing the disease. Some isolates, such as CST4 and CST2, reduced the incidence value of STB to 40% and the severity value to 70% of the control values applied as coated-seed formulation. On the other hand, isolates T4 and T2 showed the greatest effectiveness for controlling STB, with similar reduction values to that shown by the fungicide (Folicur®) application treatment. The results of this study indicated that, although the immediate impact of Trichoderma isolates may be seen as reduced incidence and severity on the first stages of STB, in the long term, the same disease levels as found in untreated sites may be attained. This study also demonstrated that the incorporation of Trichoderma as a biocontrol preparation may be a promising step towards reducing STB disease in the field and the levels of fungicide residues in the context of a more integrated approach to the problem.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  • Alippi AM, Perelló AE, Sisterna MN, Greco NM, Cordo CA (2000) Potential of spore-forming bacteria as biocontrol agents of wheat foliar diseases under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenschutz 107:155–169

    Google Scholar 

  • Annone JG (2005) El desafío del manejo integrado de enfermedades de los cultivos en sistemas agrícolas conservacionistas: El caso de la sanidad del trigo en siembra directa. In: Proceedings of the 13th Congreso Latinoamericano de Fitopatología, Villa Carlos Paz, Córdoba, Argentina, 19–22 April 2005, pp 161–164

  • Annone JG, Calzolari A, Polidoro O, Conta H (1991) Efecto de la mancha de la hoja causada por Septoria tritici sobre el rendimiento. INTA EEA Pergamino, Pergamino, Argentina. Informe no. 122, 4 pp

  • Babadoost M, Herbert TT (1984) Factors affecting infection of wheat seedlings by Septoria nodorum. Phytopathology 74:592–595

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Biles CL, Hill JP (1983) The effect of Trichoderma hamatum on the sporulation capacity of Cochliobolus sativus lesions excised from winter wheat seedling leaves. Phytopathology 73(5):820

    Google Scholar 

  • Björkman T, Harman GE, Price HC (1994) Effects of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum on root development in Zea mays. Plant Physiol 105:S-44 (conference abstract)

  • Blakeman JP, Brown AE, Mercer PC (1992) Biological control of plant diseases—present and future trends. Pesq Agropec Bras 27:151–164

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown J (2001) Septoria on cereals: a study of pathosystems. Plant Pathol 50(1):136–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cook RJ (1993) Making greater use of introduced microorganisms for biological control of plant pathogens. Ann Rev Phytopathol 31:53–80

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cook RJ, Veseth J (1991) Wheat health management. Plant health series. American Phytopathology Society Press, 152 pp

  • Dal Bello G, Mónaco CI, Sisterna M, Nico A, Carranza M (2006) Tratamiento de semillas con hongos y bacterias antagonistas para el control biológico del tizón de la plántula de trigo producido por Bipolaris sorokiniana. Taller latinoamericano de Biocontrol de Fitopatógenos con Trichoderma y otros antagonistas. Memorias. Instituto de Investigaciones de Sanidad Vegetal, la Habana, Cuba, 28 al 31 de marzo de 2006

  • Dawson WAJM, Bateman GL (2001) Fungal communities on roots of wheat and barley and effects of seed treatments containing fluquinconazole applied to control take-all. Plant Pathology 50(1):75–82

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dubos B, Bulit J (1981) Filamentous fungi as biocontrol agents on aerial plant surfaces. In: Blakeman JP (ed) Microbial ecology of the phylloplane. Academic Press, London, pp 353–367

    Google Scholar 

  • Elad Y (2000) Biological control of foliar pathogens by means of Trichoderma harzianum and potential modes of action. Crop Prot 19:709–714

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elad Y, Kirshner B (1992) Establishment of an active Trichoderma population in the phylloplane and its effect on grey mould (Botrytis cinerea). Phytoparasitica 20(Suppl):137S–141S

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elad Y, Chet I, Henis Y (1981) A selective medium for improving quantitative isolation of Trichoderma spp. from soil. Phytoparasitica 9:59–67

    Google Scholar 

  • Eyal Z (1981) Integrated control of Septoria diseases of wheat. Plant Dis 65:763–768

    Google Scholar 

  • Eyal Z, Scharen AL, Prescott JM, van Ginkel M (1987) The Septoria diseases of wheat. Concepts and methods of disease management. CIMMYT, Mèxico

    Google Scholar 

  • Fálico L, Varaschin C (2007) Experiencias de implantación de trigos con microorganismos incorporados a la siembra. Resúmenes Jornada de actualización en enfermedades de Trigo. Instituto Fitotécnico Santa Catalina, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 23 November 2007, pp 47–49

  • Flaishman M, Eyal Z, Voisard C, Haas D (1990) Suppression of Septoria tritici by phenazine- or siderophore-deficient mutants of Pseudomonas. Curr Microbiol 20(2):121–124

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fokkema NJ, van der Meulen F (1976) Antagonism of yeast-like phyllosphere fungi against Septoria nodorum on wheat leaves. Neth J Plant Pathol 82:13–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fokkema NJ, den Houter JG, Kosterman YJC, Nelis AL (1979) Manipulation of yeasts on fieldgrown wheat leaves and their antagonistic effect on Cochliobolus sativus and Septoria nodorum. Trans Br Mycol Soc 72(1):19–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haran S, Schickler H, Chet I (1996a) Molecular mechanisms of lytic enzymes involved in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma harzianum. Microbiology 142:2321–2331

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Haran S, Schickler H, Oppenheim A, Chet I (1996b) Differential expression of Trichoderma harzianum chitinases during mycoparasitism. Phytopathology 86:980–985

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harman GE (1996) Trichoderma for biocontrol of plant pathogens: from basic research to commercialized products. In: Conference on biological control. Cornell University NYSAES, Geneva, NY, 11–13 April 1996

  • Harman GE (2000) Myths and dogmas of biocontrol: changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum T-22. Plant Dis 84:377–393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harman GE (2004) Overview of new insights into mechanisms and uses of Trichoderma based products. Phytopathology 94(6):S138

    Google Scholar 

  • Homechin M (1986) In vitro inhibicao de crescimento micelial de diferentes isolados de Helminthosporium sativum por Trichoderma harzianum Rifai. In: Reuniao sobre Controle Biológico de Doencas de Plantas, vol 1, Piracicaba. Anais. Londrina, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, p 72

  • Kraan G, Nisi JE (1993) Septoriosis del trigo en la República Argentina. Situación del cultivo frente a la enfermedad. In: Gilchrist L, van Ginkel A, McNab A, Kema GHJ (eds) Proceedings of the Septoria tritici Workshop, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico, September 1993

  • Larrán S, Perelló AE, Simón MR, Moreno V (2002) Isolation and analysis of endophytic microorganisms in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:683–686

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lewis JA, Papavizas GC (1991) Biocontrol of plant diseases: the approach for tomorrow. Crop Prot 10:95–105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lo C-T, Nelson EB, Harman GE (1996) Biological control of turfgrass diseases with a rhizosphere competent strain of Trichoderma harzianum. Plant Disease 80:736–741

    Google Scholar 

  • Lorito M, Woo SL (2004) The molecular biology of the interaction between Trichoderma, phytopathogenic fungi and plants. Phytopathology 94:S139

    Google Scholar 

  • Luz WC (1982) Controle biologico das manchas foliares do trigo a traves de microorganismos da filosfera. Fitopatol Bras 7:530–531

    Google Scholar 

  • Luz WC (1991) Controle biologico das doencas foliares do trigo. In: Bettiol W (ed) Controle biologico de doencas de plantas. ENBRAPA, Brasil, pp 383–388

    Google Scholar 

  • Mangiarotti A, del Frake G, Picco AM, Carreta G (1987) Antagonistic activity in vitro of some saprophytic fungi occurring on the phylloplane of rice, wheat and maize. Bol Micol 3:183–189

    Google Scholar 

  • McSpadden Gardener BB, Fravel DR (2002) Biological control of plant pathogens: research, commercialization, and application in the USA. Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2002-0510-01-RV

  • Melo Y (1991) Potencialidades de utilização de Trichoderma spp. no controle biológico de doenças de plantas. In: Bettiol W (ed) Controle biológico de doenças de plantas. EMBRAPA, Brasil, pp 135–156

    Google Scholar 

  • Michereff SJ, Da Silverira NSS, Reis A, De Mariano RLR (1995) Greenhouse screening of Trichoderma isolates for control of Curvularia leaf spot of yam. Mycopathologia 130:103–108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mónaco CI (1989) Ensayos in vitro para evaluar la eficiencia de microparásitos sobre esclerocios de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary con miras a su control. Rev Facul Agron 65:76–73

    Google Scholar 

  • Mónaco CI, Rollán MC, Nico AI (1998) Efecto de micoparásitos sobre la capacidad reproductiva de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Rev Iberoam Micol 15:84–87

    Google Scholar 

  • Monte E (2001) Understanding Trichoderma: between biotechnology and microbial ecology. Int Microbiol 4:1–4

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nolan S, Cooke BM (2000) Control of Stagonospora nodorum and Septoria tritici in wheat by pre-treatment with Drechslera teres, a non-host pathogen. Eur J Plant Pathol 106:203–206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Papavizas GC (1985) Trichoderma and Gliocladium: biology, ecology, and potential for biocontrol. Ann Rev Phytopathol 23:23–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perelló AE (1998) Interacciones entre la microflora saprotrofa y patógenos foliares del filoplano del trigo. PhD thesis, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, 232 pp

  • Perelló AE, Cordo CA, Mónaco CI (1994) Trichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium roseum: antagonistic agents introduced to wheat phylloplane for biological control of Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici). In: Arseniuk E, Goral T, Czembor P (eds) Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Septoria of Cereals, 4–7 July 1994, IHAR, Radzikov, Poland. Hodowla Roslin Aklimatyzacja I. Nasiennictwo (Special Edition) vol 38 (3–4), 338 pp

  • Perelló AE, Mónaco CI, Cordo CA (1997) Evaluation of Trichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium roseum in controlling leaf blotch of wheat (Septoria tritici) under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenschutz 104:588–598

    Google Scholar 

  • Perelló AE, Simón MR, Cordo CA, Arambarri AM (1998a) Use of phylloplane fungi to control leaf blotch of wheat caused by Septoria tritici. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Mycological Congress, Jerusalem, Israel, August 1998, p 71

  • Perelló AE, Simón MR, Cordo CA, Arambarri AM (1998b) Microscopic interactions between foliar pathogens and the mycoflora of wheat phylloplane. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Mycological Congress, Jerusalem, Israel, August 1998, p 72

  • Perelló AE, Simón MR, Arambarri AM, Cordo CA (2001a) Greenhouse screening of the saprophytic resident microflora for control of leaf spots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Phytoparasitica 29(4):341–351

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perelló AE, Simón MR, Sisterna M, Cordo CA, Arambarri AM (2001b) Microflora of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Buenos Aires province (Argentina) and its possible significance in biological control of foliar pathogens. Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenschutz 108(5):459–471

    Google Scholar 

  • Perelló AE, Simón MR, Arambarri AM (2002) Interactions between foliar pathogens and the saprophytic microflora of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phylloplane. J Phytopathol 150:232–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perelló AE, Mónaco CI, Sisterna M, Dal Bello G (2003) Biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma isolates for tan spot of wheat in Argentina. Crop Prot 22:1099–1106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perelló AE, Mónaco CI, Moreno MV, Cordo CA, Simón MR (2006) The effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. koningii on the control of tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) and leaf blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) of wheat under field conditions in Argentina. Biocontrol Sci Technol 16(8):803–813

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Polley RW, Thomas MR (1991) Surveys of diseases of winter wheat in England and Wales, 1976–1988. Ann Appl Biol 119:1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Powell K (1993) Is biocontrol the answer for sustainable agriculture? Mycologist 7:75–78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Segarra CI, Cordo C, Mónaco C, Mansilla A, Conde RD (2004) Sistema trigo-Septoria tritici-Trichoderma harzianum. Papel de las proteasas extracelulares de la hoja de trigo en el control biológico. XXXV Reunión Argentina de Fisiología Vegetal, 22 al 24 de septiembre de 2004, Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina

  • Simon A, Sivasithamparam K (1989) Pathogen-suppression: a case study in biological suppression of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 21:331–337

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sutton JC, Peng G (1993) Manipulation and vectoring of biocontrol organisms to manage foliage and fruit diseases in cropping systems. Ann Rev Phytopathol 31:473–493

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tronsmo A (1986) Use of Trichoderma spp. in biological control of necrotrophic pathogens. In: Fokkema NJ, van den Heuvel J (eds) Microbiology of the phyllosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Vitti AJ, Ghini R (1990) Sobrevivencia de linhagens de Trichoderma resistentes a iprodione em morangueiro. Summa Phytopathol 16:36–40

    Google Scholar 

  • Windels CE, Lindow SE (1985) Biological control on the phylloplane. American Phytopathology Society Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, p 169

    Google Scholar 

  • Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF (1974) A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Res 14:415–421

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Financial support was given from the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Project 11 A142. The authors thank the personnel of the Estación Experimental J. Hirschhorn, Los Hornos, Daniela Bayo, scholarships Silvia Alonso, Virginia Nolasco, Patricio Gannon and Sebastián Rapetti for their technical assistance.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Analía Edith Perelló.

Additional information

Handling editor: Reijo Karjalainen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Perelló, A.E., Moreno, M.V., Mónaco, C. et al. Biological control of Septoria tritici blotch on wheat by Trichoderma spp. under field conditions in Argentina. BioControl 54, 113–122 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-008-9159-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-008-9159-8

Keywords

  • Wheat diseases
  • Biological control