, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 235–252 | Cite as

Current and potential management strategies against Harmonia axyridis

  • Marc Kenis
  • Helen E. Roy
  • Renate Zindel
  • Michael E. N. Majerus


This paper reviews the current and potential methods to control the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an Asian predatory beetle invasive in Europe and the Americas where it has become a human nuisance, a grape and wine pest and a threat to native biodiversity. Current methods to manage this invasive species include: techniques to mechanically prevent adult beetles from entering buildings in autumn or to remove aggregates of beetles inside buildings, e.g. using various trapping methods; the use of insecticides on buildings or in vineyards to prevent aggregation in houses or on grapes; cultivation practices in vineyards to lower the impact of the ladybird on grape production and wine quality; remedial treatments for wine tainted by the ladybird. Other methods are presently being developed or considered. Semiochemicals could be used as deterrents or as attractants to develop more efficient trapping systems in buildings and open fields. Natural enemies include pathogens, parasitoids, predators and a parasitic mite but few of them show potential as biological control agents. While management methods presently used or under development may eventually solve the problems caused by beetles aggregating in buildings or vineyards, the issue of H. axyridis populations outcompeting native species is much more challenging. Only the sudden adaptation of a native natural enemy or the importation of a natural enemy from the area of origin of the ladybird may ultimately lower population densities. The problems linked to the importation of an Asian natural enemy of H. axyridis are discussed.


Harmonia axyridis Integrated pest management Biological control Mechanical control Chemical control Cultivation practices Parasitoids Entomopathogenic fungi Parasitic mites 


  1. Adriaens T, Branquart E, Maes D (2003) The multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae), a threat for native aphid predators in Belgium? Belg J Zool 133:201–287Google Scholar
  2. Adriaens T, San Martin y Gomez G, Maes D (2007) Invasion history, habitat preferences and phenology of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis in Belgium. BioControl (this issue). doi:10.1007/s10526-007-9137-6
  3. Agarwala BK, Yasuda H, Kajita Y (2003) Effect of conspecific and heterospecific feces on foraging and oviposition of two predatory ladybirds: role of fecal cues in predation avoidance. J Chem Ecol 29:357–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2005) Viticulture pest alert. Multicolored Asian ladybeetle (Harmonia axyridis) on grapes. Missoury State University. Cited 20 Aug 2007
  5. Applebaum S, Kfir R, Gerson U, Tadmor U (1971) Studies on the summer decline of Chilocorus bipustulatus in citrus groves in Israel. Entomophaga 16:433–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baniecki J, Dabaan ME, Freeborn J, Cheves B, Richmond D (2004) Multicolored Asian ladybird (Harmonia axyridis). West Virginia University extension Service. Cited 20 Aug 2007
  7. Berti Filho E, Costa VA (1995) Perilitus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae), a parasitoid of Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Rev Agric (Piracicaba) 70:80Google Scholar
  8. Brown PMJ, Adriaens T, Bathon H, Cuppen J, Goldarazena A, Hägg T, Kenis M, Klausnitzer BEM, Kovář I, Loomans AJM, Majerus MEN, Nedved O, Pedersen J, Rabitsch W, Roy HE, Ternois V, Zakharov IA, Roy DB (2007) Harmonia axyridis in Europe: spread and distribution of a non-native coccinellid. BioControl (this issue). doi:10.1007/s10526-007-9132-y
  9. Burns DA, McDonnell JJ, Hemptinne J-L, Lognay G, Dixon AFG (1998) Mate recognition in the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata: role of chemical and behavioural cues. J Insect Physiol 44:1163–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Byers JA (2004) Chemical ecology of bark beetles in a complex olfactory landscape. In: Lieutier F, Day KR, Battisti A, Grégoire J-C, Evans HF (eds) Bark and wood boring insects in living trees in Europe, a synthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  11. Cook SM, Khan ZR, Pickett JA (2007) The use of push-pull strategies in integrated pest management. Annu Rev Entomol 52:375–400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cottrell TE, Shapiro-Ilan DI (2003) Susceptibility of a native and an exotic lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to Beauveria bassiana. J Invertebr Pathol 84:137–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. De Clercq P, Peeters I, Vergauwe G, Thas O (2003) Interactions between Podisus maculiventris and Harmonia axyridis, two predators used in augmentative biological control in greenhouse crops. BioControl 48:39–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Disney RHL (1997) A new species of Phoridae (Diptera) that parasitises a wide-spread Asian ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Entomologist 116:163–168Google Scholar
  15. Dowd PF, Vega FE (2003) Autodissemination of Beauveria bassiana by sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) to overwintering sites. Biocontrol Sci Technol 13:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dutcher JD, Estes PM, Dutcher MJ (1999) Interactions in entomology: aphids, aphidophaga and ants in pecan orchards. J Entomol Sci 34:40–56Google Scholar
  17. Firlej A (2006) Interaction du parasitoïde Dinocampus coccinellae avec la coccinelle exotique Harmonia axyridis Pallas et la coccinelle indigène Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake. PhD Thesis, Université du Québec à Montréal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  18. Firlej A, Boivin G, Lucas E, Coderre D (2005) First report of parasitism of Harmonia axyridis parasitism by Dinocampus coccinellae schrank in Canada. Biol Invasions 7:553–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Galvan TL, Koch RL, Hutchison WD (2005a) Effects of spinosad and indoxacarb on survival, development and reproduction of the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Biol Control 34:108–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Galvan TL, Koch RL, Hutchison WD (2005b) Toxicity of commonly used insecticides in sweet corn and soybean to the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). J Econ Entomol 98:780–789CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Galvan TL, Burkness EC, Hutchison WD (2006a) Efficacy of selected insecticides for management of the multicolored Asian lady beetle on wine grapes near harvest. Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2006-1003-01-RS
  22. Galvan TL, Burkness EC, Hutchison WD (2006b) Influence of berry injury on infestations of the multicolored Asian lady beetle in wine grapes. Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2006-0607-01-BR
  23. Galvan TL, Burkness EC, Hutchison WD (2006c) Wine grapes in the Midwest: reducing the risk of the multicolored Asian lady beetle. Public. 08232. University of Minnesota Extension Service, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  24. Galvan TL, Koch RL, Hutchison WD (2006d) Toxicity of indoxocarb and spinosad to the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) via three routes of exposure. Pest Manag Sci 62:797–804CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Galvan TL, Burkness EC, Hutchison WD (2007) Enumerative and binomial sequential sampling plans for the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in wine grapes. J Econ Entomol 100:1000–1010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Garcés S, Williams R (2004) First record of Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Ascomycetes) on Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). J Kansas Entomol Soc 77:156–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ginsberg HS, Lebrun RA, Heyer K, Zhioua E (2002) Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Environ Entomol 31:1191–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hassanali A, Njagi PGN, Bashir MO (2005) Chemical ecology of locusts and related acridids. Annu Rev Entomol 50:223–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hemptinne J-L, Lognay G, Doumbia M, Dixon AFG (2004) Chemical nature and persistence of the oviposition deterring pheromone in the tracks of the larvae of the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Chemoecology 11:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hills LD (1969) Biological pest control: report 3. Henry Doubleday Research Association, EssexGoogle Scholar
  31. Hodek I (1973) Biology of coccinellidae. Dr. W. Junk N. V., Publishers, The HageGoogle Scholar
  32. Hodek I (1996) Food relationships. In: Hodek I, Honek A (eds) Ecology of coccinellidae. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoogendoorn M, Heimpel GE (2002) Indirect interactions between an introduced and a native ladybird beetle species mediated by a shared parasitoid. Biol Control 25:224–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Huelsman MF, Kovach J (2004) Behavior and treatment of the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Harmonia axyridis) in urban environments. Am Entomol 50:163–164Google Scholar
  35. Hurst GDD, Sharpe RG, Broomfield AH, Walker LE, Majerus TMO, Zakharov IA, Majerus MEN (1995) Sexually transmitted disease in a promiscuous insect, Adalia bipunctata. Ecol Entomol 20:230–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hurst GDD, Hurst LD, Majerus MEN (1997) Cytoplasmic sex-ratio distorters. In: O′Neill SL, Hoffmann AA, Werren JH (eds) Influential passengers. Oxford University Press, UK, pp 125–154Google Scholar
  37. Inclan DJ, Williams RN, Ellis MA, Fickle DS, McClure KB (2006) Managing the multicoloured Asian lady beetle in grapes, 2005. Arthrop Manag Tests 31:L7Google Scholar
  38. Iperti G (1964) Les parasites des coccinelles aphidiphages dans les Alpes-Maritimes et les Basses-Alpes. Entomophaga 9:153–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Iperti G, van Waerebeke D (1968) Description, biologie et importance d’une nouvelle espèce d’Allantonematidae (Nématoda), parasite des Coccinelles aphidiphages: Parasitylenchus coccinellinae, n. sp. Entomophaga 13:107–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. James RR, Shaffer BT, Croft B, Lighthart B (1995) Field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana: its persistence and effects on the pea aphid and a non-target coccinellid in alfalfa. Biocontrol Sci Technol 5:425–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jones CS, Boggs J (2002) Multicolored Asian lady beetle. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet: Entomology HSE-1030-01. Cited 20 August 2007
  42. Kamburov SS., Nadel DJ, Kenneth R (1967) Observations on Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales), a fungus associated with premature mortality of Chilocorus bipustulatus L. in Israel. Israel J Agric Res Rehovot 17:131–134Google Scholar
  43. Katsoyannos P, Aliniazee MT (1998) First record of Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western North America. Can Entomol 130:905–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Klausnitzer B, Klausnitzer H (1997) Marienkäfer. Westarp Wissenschaften, MagdeburgGoogle Scholar
  45. Klein MG, Lacey LA (1999) An attractant trap for autodissemination of entomopathogenic fungi into populations of the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Biocontrol Sci Technol 9:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Koch RL (2003) The multicoloured Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: a review of its biology, uses in biological control and non target impacts. J Insect Sci 3:32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Koch RL, Galvan TL (2007) Bad side of a good beetle: the North American experience with Harmonia axyridis. BioControl (this issue). doi:10.1007/s10526-007-9121-1
  48. Koch RL, Burkness EC, Wold Burkness SJ, Hutchison WD (2004) Phytophagous preferences of the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to autumn ripening fruit. J Econ Entomol 97:539–544CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Koch RL, Venette RC, Hutchison WD (2006) Invasions by Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Western Hemisphere: implications for South America. Neotrop Entomol 35:421–434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kovach J (2004) Impact of the multicolored Asian lady beetle as a pest of fruit and people. Am Entomol 50:165–167Google Scholar
  51. Koyama S, Majerus MEN (2007) Interactions between the parasitoid wasp Dinocampus coccinellae and two species of coccinellid from Japan and Britain. BioControl (this issue). doi:10.1007/s10526-007-9138-5
  52. Kuznetsov VN (1997) Lady beetles of the Russian far east, (Memoir series no. 1). Center for Systematic Entomology, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu CL (1950) Contribution to the knowledge of Chinese Coccinellidae. X. Occurrence of Perilitus coccinellidae (Schrank), a parasite of adult Coccinelidae in North China (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Entomol News 61:207–208Google Scholar
  54. Maeta Y (1969) Biological studies on the natural enemies of some coccinellid beetles. I. On Perilitus coccinellae (Schrank). Kontyu 37:147–1166Google Scholar
  55. Majerus MEN (1994) Ladybirds new naturalist series. Harper Collins, UKGoogle Scholar
  56. Majerus MEN (1997) Parasitization of British ladybirds by Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Br J Entomol Nat Hist 10:15–24Google Scholar
  57. Majerus MEN (2003) A new dimension to sex wars: microbes that benefit female hosts. Microbiol Today 30:68–70Google Scholar
  58. Majerus MEN (2006) The impact of male-killing bacteria on the evolution of aphidophagous coccinellids. Eur J Entomol 103:1–7Google Scholar
  59. Majerus MEN, Hurst GDD (1997) Ladybirds as a model system for the study of male-killing symbionts. Entomophaga 42:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Majerus MEN, Kearns P (1989) Ladybirds. Naturalists’ handbooks n° 10. Richemond publ., SloughGoogle Scholar
  61. Majerus TMO, Majerus MEN, Knowles B, Wheeler J, Bertrand D, Kuznetzov VN, Ueno H, Hurst GDD (1998) Extreme variation in the prevalence of inherited male-killing microorganisms between three populations of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Heredity 81:683–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Majerus MEN, Roy HE (2005) Scientific opportunities presented by the arrival of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, in Britain. Antenna 29:196–208Google Scholar
  63. Majerus MEN, Strawson V, Roy HE (2006) The potential impacts of the arrival of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in Britain. Ecol Entomol 31:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McCutcheon TW, Scott HR (2001) Observations of cosmetic damage on a house caused by the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). West Virginia University Extension Service. Cited 20 August 2007
  65. McDaniel B, Morrill W (1969) A new species of Tetrapolipus from Hippodamia convergens from South Dakota (Acarina: Podopolipidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 62:1456–1458Google Scholar
  66. Nalepa CA, Kidd KA (2002) Parasitism of the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) in North Carolina. J Entomol Sci 37:124–127Google Scholar
  67. Nalepa CA, Weir A (2007) Infection of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Hesperomyces virescens (Ascomycetes: Laboulbeniales): role of mating status and aggregation behavior. J Invertebr Pathol 94:196–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Nalepa CA, Kidd KA, Ahlstrom KR (1996) Biology of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in winter aggregations. Ann Entomol Soc Am 89:681–685Google Scholar
  69. Nalepa CA, Kidd KA, Hopkins DI (2000) The multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): orientation to aggregation sites. J Entomol Sci 35:150–157Google Scholar
  70. Nalepa CA, Kennedy GG, Brownie C (2005) Role of visual contrast in the alighting behavior of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) at overwintering sites. Environ Entomol 34:425–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nechayev VA, Kuznetsov VN (1973) Avian predation on coccinellids in Primorie region. Entomofauna Sovetskogo Dalnego Vostoka, VladivostokGoogle Scholar
  72. Noyes J (2007) Universal chalcidoidea database. Natural history museum. Cited 20 August 2007
  73. Obrycki JJ, Tauber MJ, Tauber CA (1985) Perilitus coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): parasitization and development in relation to host-stage attacked. Ann Entomol Soc Am 78:852–854Google Scholar
  74. Osawa N (1992) A life table of the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in relation to the aphid abundance. Jpn J Entomol 60:575–579Google Scholar
  75. Osawa N (1993) Population field studies of the aphidophagous ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): life tables and key factor analysis. Res Popul Ecol 35:335–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Park H, Park YC, Hong OK, Cho SY (1996) Parasitoids of the aphidophagous ladybeetles, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Chuncheon areas, Korea. Korean J Entomol 26:143–147Google Scholar
  77. Pascoe S, Brown PM, Majerus MEN (2007) Hybrid mating between Harmonia axyridis and Adalia bipunctata. Bull Amat Entomol Soc 66:156–159Google Scholar
  78. Pell JK, Baverstock J, Roy HE, Ware RL, Majerus MEN (2007) Intraguild predation involving Harmonia axyridis: a review of current knowledge and future perspectives. BioControl (this issue). doi:10.1007/s10526-007-9125-x
  79. Pervez A, Omkar A (2006) Ecology and biological control application of multicoloured Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis: a review. Biocontrol Sci Technol 16:111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pettersson J, Ninkovic V, Glinwood R, Birkett MA, Pickett JA (2005) Foraging in a complex environment—semiochemicals support searching behaviour of the seven spot ladybird. Eur J Entomol 102:365–370Google Scholar
  81. Pickering GJ, Lin JY, Reynolds A, Soleas G, Riesen R, Brindle I (2005) The influence of Harmonia axyridis on wine composition and aging. J Food Sci 70:S128–S135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pickering GJ, Lin JY, Reynolds A, Soleas G, Riesen R (2006) The evaluation of remedial treatments for wine affected by Harmonia axyridis. Int J Food Sci Technol 41:77–86Google Scholar
  83. Pickering GJ, Ker K, Soleas GJ (2007) Determination of the critical stages of processing and tolerance limits for Harmonia axyridis for ‘ladybug taint’ in wine. Vitis 46:85–90Google Scholar
  84. Poprawski TJ, Legaspi JC, Parker PE (1998) Influence of entomopathogenic fungi on Serangium parcesetosum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an important predator of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Environ Entomol 27:785–795Google Scholar
  85. Potter MF, Townsend L (2005) Asian lady beetle invasion of structures. University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture.ENTFACT-416. Cited 20 Aug 2007
  86. Ray JN, Pence HL (2004) Ladybug hypersensitivity: report of a case and review of literature. Allergy Asthma Proc 25:133–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Reeves WK, O′Hara JE (2004) First report of Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of a cantharid beetle, Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae). Can Entomol 136:661–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Riddick EW, Aldrich JR (2004) Search for repellents, attractants and pheromones of the multicolored Asian lady beetle. Instant symposium—multicolored Asian lady beetles in agriculture and urban environments. Am Entomol 50:167–168Google Scholar
  89. Riddick EW, Schaefer PW (2005) Occurrence, density and distribution of parasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) on multicoloured Asian beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 98:615–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Riddick EW, Aldrich JR, De Milo A, Davis JC (2000) Potential for modifying the behavior of the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with plant-derived natural products. Ann Entomol Soc Am 93:1314–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Riddick EW, Aldrich JR, Davis JC (2004) Deet repels Harmonia axyridis (pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) adults in laboratory bioassays. J Entomol Sci 39:373–386Google Scholar
  92. Roy HE, Steinkraus D, Eilenberg E Hajek A, Pell JK (2006) Bizarre interactions and endgames: entomopathogenic fungi and their arthropod hosts. Annu Rev Entomol 51:331–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Roy HE, Baverstock J, Pell JK (2008) Manipulating behaviour: a strategy for pest control? In: Ekesi S, Maniania NK (eds) Use of entomopathogenic fungi in biological pest management. Research Signpost 37/661 (2), Fort P.O., Trivandrum-695 023, Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  94. Roy HE, Brown PMJ, Rothery P, Ware RL, Majerus MEN (2007) Interactions between the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana and three species of coccinellid: Harmonia axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata and Adalia bipunctata. BioControl (this issue). doi:10.1007/s10526-007-9122-0
  95. Shapiro-Ilan DI, Cottrell TE (2005) Susceptibility of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes. J Invertebr Pathol 89:150–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Smith SF, Krischik VA (2000) Effects of biorational pesticides on four coccinellid species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) having potential as biological control agents in interiorscapes. J Econ Entomol 93:732–736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Thaxter R (1891) Supplementary note on North American Laboulbeniaceae. Proc Am Acad Arts Sci 25:261–270Google Scholar
  98. Todorova SI, Cote J-C, Coderre D (1996) Evaluation of the effects of two Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin strains on the development of Coleomegilla maculate lengi Timberlake (Col, Coccinellidae). J Appl Entomol 120:159–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Todorova SI, Coderre D, Cote J-C (2000) Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolates toward Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) and their predator Coleomegilla maculate lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Phytoprotection 81:15–22Google Scholar
  100. Tschorsnig H-P, Herting B (1994) Die Raupenfliegen (Diptera: Tachinidae) Mitteleuropas: Bestimmungstabellen und Angaben zur Verbreitung und Ökologie der Einzelnen Arten. Stuttgarter Beitr Naturk Ser A (Biol) 506:1–170Google Scholar
  101. Van Driesche RG, Bellows TS Jr (1996) Biological control. Chapman & Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  102. Van Emden HF, Service MW (2004) Pest and vector control. Cambridge University Press, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Verheggen FJ, Fagel Q, Heuskin S, Lognay G, Francis F, Haubruge E (2007) Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, to sesquiterpene semiochemicals. J Chem Ecol (in press). doi:10.1007/s10886-007-9370-6
  104. Ware RL, Majerus MEN (2007) Intraguild predation of immature stages of British and Japanese coccinellids by the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis. BioControl (this issue). doi:10.1007/s10526-007-9135-8
  105. Webberley KM, Hurst GDD, Buzcko J, Majerus MEN (2002) Lack of parasite mediated sexual selection in an insect-STD system. Anim Behav 63:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Webberley KM, Hurst GDD, Husband RW, Schulenburg JHGVD, Sloggett JJ, Isham V, Buzcko J, Majerus MEN (2004) Host reproduction and a sexually transmitted disease: causes and consequences of Coccipolipus hippodamiae distribution on coccinellid beetles. J Anim Ecol 73:1195–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Webberley KM, Tinsley M, Sloggett JJ, Majerus MEN, Hurst GDD (2006) Spatial variation in the incidence of sexually transmitted parasites of the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata. Eur J Entomol 103:793–797Google Scholar
  108. Weir A, Beakes GW (1996) Correlative light- and scanning electron microscope studies on the developmental morphology of Hersperomyces virescens. Mycologia 88:677–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Welch VL, Sloggett JJ, Webberley KM, Hurst GDD (2001) Short-range clinal variation in the prevalence of a sexually transmitted fungus associated with urbanisation. Ecol Entomol 26:547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Williams RN, Fickle DS, McClure KB, Inclan DJ (2006) Chemical evaluations for control of the multicoloured Asian lady beetle on grapes, 2005. Arthropod Manag Tests 31:C11Google Scholar
  111. Yasuda H, Kimura T (2001) Interspecific interactions in a tri-trophic arthropod system: effects of a spider on the survival of larvae of three predatory ladybirds in relation to aphids. Entomol Exp Appl 98:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Kenis
    • 1
  • Helen E. Roy
    • 2
  • Renate Zindel
    • 1
    • 3
  • Michael E. N. Majerus
    • 4
  1. 1.CABI Europe-SwitzerlandDelemontSwitzerland
  2. 2.NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Monks WoodHuntingdonUK
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Unit of Ecology and EvolutionUniversity of FribourgFribourgSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of GeneticsUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeEngland, UK

Personalised recommendations