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Biomarkers of oxidative stress in the post-embryonic characterization of the neotropical annual killifish

Abstract

Annual killifish are among the most remarkable extremophile species with the shortest vertebrate life span. Few studies have reported on the oxidative balance throughout their life cycle and its association to the natural aging process of these neotropical animals in a natural environment. We standardized and analyzed physiological markers related to the redox balance of the annual killifish (Cynopoecilus fulgens) throughout the post-embryonic life cycle (enzyme activity of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase, and Glutathione S-transferase, as well as the determination of the levels of Lipoperoxidation, Carbonylated Proteins, and Total Proteins). We tested the influence of environmental variables on these biomarkers. Individuals were collected, including juveniles, adults, and seniles, in three sampling units around the Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe, located in the Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul. We observed that males and females used different physiological strategies of their redox balance during their life cycle, and their oxidative balance was influenced by their reproductive period and environmental variables (water temperature, abundance of predators, abundance of another sympatric annual killifish species, and abundance of C. fulgens). The population of each temporary pond presented different physiological responses to the adaptation of their life cycle, and there was an influence of environmental component as a modulator of this cycle. Our study offers reference values that will be useful for comparison in future research with short-lived organisms.

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Data availability

Data will be made available on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

LPNP:

Lagoa do Peixe National Park

ICMBIO:

Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade

CEUA:

Research Ethics Committee for the Use of Animals

PUCRS:

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul

RS:

Rio Grande do Sul

P1:

Temporary pond 1

P2:

Temporary pond 2

P3:

Temporary pond 3

ORP:

Oxidation reduction potential

NTU:

Turbidity

TDS:

Total dissolved solids

OD:

Oxygen dissolved

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

GST:

Glutathione S-transferase

CAT:

Catalase

SOD:

Superoxide dismutase

GPx:

Glutathione peroxidase

LPO:

Lipoperoxidation

TBARS:

Thiobarbituric acid

CP:

Carbonylated proteins

TP:

Total proteins

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Acknowledgements

We thank the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for granting the B.D.C fellowship and the G.T.O productivity fellowship (Grant No. 307071/2015-4), and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher-Level Personnel (CAPES) postdoctoral fellowship (PNPD) to L.E.K.L. To the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) for all the technical support and to the Laboratory of Ecology and Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems at the University of Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS) for the scientific partnership. We would also like to thank the administration of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, and the private landowners for granting access to their properties during field activities.

Funding

This work was partially funded by CNPq through the granting of a master's scholarship to B.D.C., a post-doctoral scholarship from CAPES to L.E.K.L., and a research productivity Grant awarded to G.T.O. (No. 307071/2015-4).

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BDC, LEKL, GTO conceived the study; LEKL, RSG, LM collected the animals, BDC, NMAW performed the biochemical analyzes and produced the results; BDC, LEKL, GTO analyzed and produced the data. BDC, SHS, LEKL, GTO wrote the paper and SHDS translated the paper. All Authors revised the paper.

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Correspondence to Guendalina Turcato Oliveira.

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The original version of the article was corrected due to incorrect name tagging for author “Natália Medeiros de Albuquerque Wingen”

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de Castro, B.D., Wingen, N.M.A., dos Santos, S.H.D. et al. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in the post-embryonic characterization of the neotropical annual killifish. Biogerontology 22, 507–530 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-021-09931-0

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Keywords

  • Senescence processes
  • Life cycle
  • Redox balance
  • Environmental variables
  • Physiological responses
  • Cynopoecilus fulgens