, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 677–686 | Cite as

Hypercapnic hypoxia as a potential means to extend life expectancy and improve physiological activity in mice

  • Vladimir P. Kulikov
  • Pavel P. TregubEmail author
  • Ilya S. Osipov
  • Arseniy I. Trukhanov
Research Article


The application of combined hypoxia and hypercapnia (hypercapnic hypoxia) during respiratory exercises results in a maximum increase in resistance to acute hypoxia and ischemic tolerance of the brain. The results of those researches allow the assumption that hypercapnic hypoxia is a promising method for prophylaxis, treatment, and rehabilitation, as well as a means to increase life expectancy. The study was conducted to verify the hypothesis that it is possible to extend the life span through regular courses of respiratory exercises with hypercapnic hypoxia. In the present experimental research carried out on mice, the geroprotective effect of regular hypercapnic-hypoxic exercises (PO2—90 mm Hg and PCO2—50 mm Hg) was assessed in the context of the average life expectancy and the main criteria of its quality (reproductive function, muscle strength, and behavior). Results suggest that with regular training, life span is extended significantly by 16%. This result was accompanied by improved reproductive and cognitive functions, increased motor and search activities, and physical stamina in old age mices. This important phenomenon is accompanied by improved reproductive and cognitive functions, high motor function and search activity, as well as better physical stamina in old-aged mices. Recurring respiratory training under combined hypoxia and hypercapnia (hypercapnic hypoxia) during the lifetime significantly extended the life span of mice in the experiments.


Hypoxia Hypercapnia Hypercapnic hypoxia Rejuvenation Lifespan Healthy longevity 



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed (EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LLC “Altai Medical Institute of Postgraduate Education”BarnaulRussia
  2. 2.“Professor VF Voyno-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University” of the Ministry of Health of RussiaKrasnoyarskRussia
  3. 3.Federal Scientific Clinical Center for Reanimatology and RehabilitationMoscowRussia

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