Hypercapnic hypoxia as a potential means to extend life expectancy and improve physiological activity in mice
- 75 Downloads
The application of combined hypoxia and hypercapnia (hypercapnic hypoxia) during respiratory exercises results in a maximum increase in resistance to acute hypoxia and ischemic tolerance of the brain. The results of those researches allow the assumption that hypercapnic hypoxia is a promising method for prophylaxis, treatment, and rehabilitation, as well as a means to increase life expectancy. The study was conducted to verify the hypothesis that it is possible to extend the life span through regular courses of respiratory exercises with hypercapnic hypoxia. In the present experimental research carried out on mice, the geroprotective effect of regular hypercapnic-hypoxic exercises (PO2—90 mm Hg and PCO2—50 mm Hg) was assessed in the context of the average life expectancy and the main criteria of its quality (reproductive function, muscle strength, and behavior). Results suggest that with regular training, life span is extended significantly by 16%. This result was accompanied by improved reproductive and cognitive functions, increased motor and search activities, and physical stamina in old age mices. This important phenomenon is accompanied by improved reproductive and cognitive functions, high motor function and search activity, as well as better physical stamina in old-aged mices. Recurring respiratory training under combined hypoxia and hypercapnia (hypercapnic hypoxia) during the lifetime significantly extended the life span of mice in the experiments.
KeywordsHypoxia Hypercapnia Hypercapnic hypoxia Rejuvenation Lifespan Healthy longevity
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed (EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments).
- Agadzhanian NA, Radysh IV, Severin AE, Ermakova NV (1995) Ecology, adaptation and biorhythms. Aviakosm Ekolog Med 29(3):16–19Google Scholar
- Anisimov VN, Popovich IG, Zabezhinski MA (2007) Methods of evaluating the effect of of pharmacological drugs on aging and life span in mice biological aging: methods and protocols. In: Tollefsbol TO (ed) Methods in molecular biology, vol 371. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 227–236Google Scholar
- Bespalov AG, Tregub PP, Kulikov VP, Pijanzin AI, Belousov AA (2014) The role of VEGF, HSP-70 and protein S-100B in the potentiation effect of the neuroprotective effect of hypercapnic hypoxia. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter 2:24–27Google Scholar
- Boretto JM, Cabezas-Cartes F, Ibargüengoytía NR (2018) Slow life histories in lizards living in the highlands of the Andes Mountains. J Comp = Physiol B 188:491–503Google Scholar
- Gould TD, Dao DT, Kovacsics CE (2010) The open field test in mood and anxiety related phenotypes in mice. Neuromethods 42:1–20Google Scholar
- Jaitovich A, Angulo M, Lecuona E, Dada LA, Welch LC, Cheng Y, Gusarova G, Ceco E, Liu C, Shigemura M, Barreiro E, Patterson C, Nader GA, Sznajder JI (2015) High CO2 levels cause skeletal muscle atrophy via AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), FoxO3a protein, and muscle-specific Ring finger protein 1 (MuRF1). J Biol Chem 290(14):9183–9194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kulikov VP, Osipov IS, Tregub PP (2015) Optimal hypercapnic hypoxia conditions for increasing resistance to acute hypoxia. Aviakosm Ekolog Med 49(5):25–28Google Scholar
- Leak RK, Calabrese EJ, Kozumbo WJ, Gidday JM, Johnson TE, Mitchell JR, Ozaki CK, Wetzker R, Bast A, Belz RG, Bøtker HE, Koch S, Mattson MP, Simon RP, Jirtle RL, Andersen ME (2018) Enhancing and extending biological performance and resilience. Dose Response 16(3):1559325818784501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van Zutphen LF, Baumans V, Beynen AC (2001) Principles of laboratory animal science. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar