, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 611–626 | Cite as

Evolution of social networks: the example of obesity

  • Jacques DemongeotEmail author
  • Carla Taramasco
Review Article


The present paper deals with the effect of the social transmission of nutrition habits in a social and biological age-dependent context on obesity, and accordingly on type II diabetes and among its complications, the neurodegenerative diseases. The evolution of social networks and inside a network the healthy weight of a person are depending on the context in which this person has contacts and exchanges concerning his alimentation, physical activity and sedentary habits, inside the dominant social network in which the person lives (e.g., scholar for young, professional for adult, home or institution for elderly people). Three successive steps of evolution will be considered for social networks (like for neural one’s): initial random connectivity, destruction and consolidation of links following a new transition rule called homophilic until an asymptotic architectural organization and configuration of states. The application of such a network dynamics concerns the sequence overweight/obesity/type II diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases.


Obesity Type II diabetes Social network Homophilic graph 



The research was supported by the PHC Maghreb SCIM and by the French Program “Investissements d’Avenir” VHP (VisioHome Presence inter@ctive).


  1. Aramaki E, Maskawa S, Morita M (2011) Twitter catches the flu: detecting influenza epidemics using Twitter. EMNLP’11. ACL, Stroudsburg, pp 1568–1576Google Scholar
  2. Ashrafian H, Harling L, Darzi A, Athanasiou T (2013) Neurodegenerative disease and obesity: what is the role of weight loss and bariatric interventions? Metab Brain Dis 28:341–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahrami H, Sadatsafavi M, Pourshams A, Kamangar F, Nouraei M, Semnani S, Brennan P, Boffetta P, Reza Malekzadeh R (2006) Obesity and hypertension in an Iranian cohort study; Iranian women experience higher rates of obesity and hypertension than American women. BMC Public Health 6:158PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barabasi A, Bonabeau E (2003) Scale-free networks. Sci Am 288:50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baranova A, Collantes R, Gowder SJ, Elariny H, Schlauch K, Younoszai A, King S, Randhawa M, Pusulury S, Alsheddi T, Ong JP, Martin LM, Chandhoke V, Zobair ZM, Younossi MD (2005) Obesity-related differential gene expression in the visceral adipose tissue. Obes Surg 15:758–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barth J (2002) What should we do about the obesity epidemic? Pract Diabetes Int 19:119–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barthélemy M, Nadal JP, Berestycki H (2010) Disentangling collective trends from local dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:7629–7634PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bergman RN, Stefanovski D, Buchanan TA, Sumner AE, Reynolds JC, Sebring NC, Xiang AH, Watanabe RM (2011) A better index of body adiposity. Obesity 19:1083–1089PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brayne C (1993) Research and Alzheimer’s disease: an epidemiological perspective. Psychol Med 23:287–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brechwald WA, Prinstein MJ (2011) Beyond homophily: a decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. J Res Adolesc 21:166e179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bricault G (2008) Naissance d’un ordre hospitalier. Publication AFAA, GrenobleGoogle Scholar
  12. Budovsky A, Abramovich A, Cohen R, Chalifa-Caspi V, Fraifeld V (2007) Longevity network: construction and implications. Mech Ageing Dev 128:117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christakis NA, Fowler JH (2006) The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. N Engl Med 355:77–82Google Scholar
  14. Christakis NA, Fowler JH (2014) Friendship and natural selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:10796–10801PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen-Cole E, Fletcher JM (2008) Is obesity contagious? social networks versus environmental factors in the obesity epidemic. J Health Econ 27:1382–1387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cunningham SA, Vaquera E, Maturo CC, Venkat Narayan KM (2012) Is there evidence that friends influence body weight? a systematic review of empirical research. Soc Sci Med 75:1175–1183PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dauphinot V, Wolff H, Naudin F, Gueguen R, Sermet C, Gaspoz JM, Kossovsky MP (2009) New obesity body mass index threshold for self-reported data. J Epidemiol Community Health 63:128–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Saint-Pol T (2008) Obésité et milieux sociaux en France: les inégalités augmentent. Bull Epid Hebd 20:175–179Google Scholar
  19. Delbrück M (1940) Statistical fluctuations in autocatalytic reactions. J Chem Phys 8:120–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Delhumeau C, Demongeot J, Langlois F, Taramasco C (2009) Modelling the hospital length of stay in diagnosis related groups data bases. IEEE ARES-CISIS’ 09. IEEE Press, Piscataway, pp 955–960Google Scholar
  21. Demetrius L (1978) Adaptive value, entropy and survivorship curves. Nature 275:213–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Demetrius L, Driver J (2013) Alzheimer’s as a metabolic disease. Biogerontology 14:641–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Demetrius L, Simon DK (2012) An inverse-Warburg effect and the origin of Alzheimer’s disease. Biogerontology 13:583–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Demetrius L, Tuszynski J (2010) Quantum metabolism explains the allometric scaling of metabolic rates. J R Soc Interface 7:507–514PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Demetrius L, Coy J, Tuszynski J (2010) Cancer proliferation and therapy: the Warburg effect and quantum metabolism. Theory Biol Med Model 7:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Demongeot J (1977) A stochastic model for the cellular metabolism. Recent developments in statistics. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 655–662Google Scholar
  27. Demongeot J (2009) Biological boundaries and biological age. Acta Biotheor 57:397–419Google Scholar
  28. Demongeot J, Demetrius L (1989) Dérive démographique et Sélection naturelle: Etude empirique de la France (1850–1965). Population 2:231–248Google Scholar
  29. Demongeot J, Fricot J (1986) Random fields and renewal potentials. NATO ASI Serie F 20:71–84Google Scholar
  30. Demongeot J, Kellershohn N (1983) Glycolytic oscillations: an attempt to an “in vitro” reconstitution of the higher part of glycolysis. Lect Notes Biomath 49:17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Demongeot J, Laurent M (1983) Sigmoidicity in allosteric models. Math Biosci 67:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Demongeot J, Sené S (2011) The singular power of the environment on nonlinear Hopfield networks. CMSB’11. ACM Proceedings, New York, pp 55–64Google Scholar
  33. Demongeot J, Waku J (2012) Robustness in genetic regulatory networks, IV Application to genetic networks controlling the cell cycle. C R Mathématique 350:293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Demongeot J, Virone G, Duchêne F, Benchetrit G, Hervé T, Noury N, Rialle V (2002) Multi-sensors acquisition, data fusion, knowledge mining and alarm triggering in health smart homes for elderly people. CR Biol 325:673–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Demongeot J, Ben Amor H, Elena A, Gillois P, Noual M, Sené S (2009) Robustness of regulatory networks. A generic approach with applications at different levels: physiologic, metabolic and genetic. Int J Mol Sci 10:4437–4473PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Demongeot J, Elena A, Noual M, Sené S, Thuderoz F (2011) «Immunetworks», intersecting circuits and dynamics. J Theory Biol 280:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Demongeot J, Noual M, Sené S (2012) Combinatorics of Boolean automata circuits dynamics. Discret Appl Math 160:398–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Demongeot J, Elena A, Taramasco C, Vuillerme N (2013) Serious game as new health telematics tool for patient therapy education: example of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Lect Notes Comput Sci 7910:187–194Google Scholar
  39. Duée M, Rebillard C (2006) La dépendance des personnes âgées: une projection en 2040. Données sociales: La société française, INSEEGoogle Scholar
  40. Erdös P, Renyi A (1960) On the evolution of random graphs. Publ Math Inst Hung Acad Sci 5:17–61Google Scholar
  41. Forsythe P, Kunze WA, Bienenstock J (2012) On communication between gut microbes and the brain. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 28:557–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fratiglioni L, De Ronchi D, Agüero-Torres H (1999) Worldwide prevalence and incidence of dementia. Drugs Aging 15:365–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fruchterman T, Reingold E (1991) Graph drawing by force-directed placement. Softw Pract Exp 21:1129–1164Google Scholar
  44. Gaymu J, Festy P, Poulain M, Beets G (2008) From elderly population projections to policy implications, In: Future elderly living conditions in Europe (Felicie). Les cahiers de l’INED, Paris, 162:267–290Google Scholar
  45. Harati H, Hadaegh F, Saadat N, Azizi F (2009) Population-based incidence of Type 2 diabetes and its associated risk factors: results from a six-year cohort study in Iran. BMC Public Health 9:186PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heyn P, Onofrei L (2008) Evidence-based practice for early cognitive impairment detection on older individuals with metabolic syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 90:e21–e22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Heyn P, Fagan A, Marlatt M, Ewbank D (2006) Alzheimer research forum live discussion: insulin resistance: a common axis linking Alzheimer’s, depression, and metabolism? J Alzheimer’s Dis 9:89–93Google Scholar
  48. Hosseinpanah F, Barzin M, Eskandary PS, Mirmiran P, Azizi F (2009) Trends of obesity and abdominal obesity in Tehranian adults: a cohort study. BMC Public Health 9:426PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kretzschmar M (1996) Measures of concurrency in networks and the spread of infectious disease. Math Biosci 133:165–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Laitinen J, Power C, Jarvelin MR (2001) Family social class, maternal body mass index, childhood body mass index, and age at menarche as predictors of adult obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 74:287–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Légaré J, Décarie Y (2008) Using statistics Canada lifepaths microsimulation model to project the health status of Canadian elderly, SEDAP research paper 227. SEDAP, HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  52. Maillard G, Charles MA, Thibault N, Forhan A, Sermet C, Basdevant A, Eschwege E (1999) Trends in the prevalence of obesity in the French adult population between 1980 and 1991. Int J Obes 23:389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mayeux R, Stern Y (2012) Epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect 2:1–18Google Scholar
  54. Myers A, Rosen JC (1999) Obesity stigmatization and coping: relation to mental health symptoms, body image, and self-esteem. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23:221–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ng M et al (2014) Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60460-8 Google Scholar
  56. ObEpi-Roche (2009) Enquête épidémiologique nationale sur le surpoids et l’obésité. Enquête INSERM-Roche, ParisGoogle Scholar
  57. Okereke OI, Xia W, Selkoe DJ, Grodstein F (2009) Ten-year change in plasma amyloid ß levels and late-life cognitive decline. Arch Neurol 66:1247–1253PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sakaki T, Okazaki M, Matsuo Y (2010) Earthquake shakes Twitter users: real-time event detection by social sensors. WWW’10. ACM, New York, pp 851–860Google Scholar
  59. Sathik MM, Rasheed AA (2011) Social network analysis in an online blogosphere. Int J Eng Sci Technol 3:117–121Google Scholar
  60. Scharoun-Lee M, Adair LS, Kaufman JS, Gordon-Larsen P (2009) Obesity, race/ethnicity and the multiple dimensions of socioeconomic status during the transition to adulthood: a factor analysis approach. Soc Sci Med 68:708–716PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sherag A et al (2010) Two new loci for body-weight regulation identified in a joint analysis of genome-wide association studies for early-onset extreme obesity in French and German study groups. PLoS Genet. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000916 Google Scholar
  62. Tacutu R, Budovsky A, Fraifeld VE (2010a) The NetAge database: a compendium of networks for longevity, age-related diseases and associated processes. Biogerontology 11:513–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tacutu R, Budovsky A, Wolfson M, Fraifeld VE (2010b) MicroRNA-regulated protein-protein interaction networks: how could they help in searching for pro-longevity targets? Rejuvenation Res 13:373–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tacutu R, Budovsky A, Yanai H, Fraifeld VE (2011) Molecular links between cellular senescence, longevity and age-related diseases: a systems biology perspective. Aging 3:1178–1191PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Tacutu R, Shore DE, Budovsky A, de Magalhães JP, Ruvkun G, Fraifeld VE, Curran SP (2012) Prediction of C. elegans longevity genes by human and worm longevity networks. PLoS One 7:e48282PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Taramasco C (2011) Impact de l’obésité sur les structures sociales et impact des structures sociales sur l’obésité ? Facteurs individuels et environnementaux. PhD thesis. Ecole Polytechnique, ParisGoogle Scholar
  67. Taramasco C, Demongeot J (2011) Collective intelligence, social networks and propagation of a social disease, the obesity. In: EIDWT’11. In Proceedings IEEE, Piscataway, pp 86–90Google Scholar
  68. Teymoori F, Hansen O, Franco A, Demongeot J (2010) Dynamic projection of old aged disability in Iran: DOPAMID microsimulation. IEEE ARES-CISIS’ 10. IEEE Press, Piscataway, pp 612–617Google Scholar
  69. Trojaola-Zapirain B, Carminati F, Gonzales Torres A, Gonzales de Mendivil E, Fouassier C, Gex-Fabry M, Martin F, Labarère J, Demongeot J, Lorincz EN, Galli Carminati G (2014) Group unconscious common orientation: exploratory study in OMIE group training for therapists. Neuroquantology 12:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tunstall-Pedoe H (2003) MONICA Project. World’s largest study of heart disease, stroke, risk factors, and population trends 1979–2002. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  71. Watson JD (2014) Type 2 diabetes as a redox disease. Lancet 383:841–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Watts D, Strogatz S (1998) Collective dynamics of the “small-world” networks. Nature 393:440–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. WHO (2000) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  74. WHO (2010) The global economic impact of dementia. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  75. Wolfson M, Budovsky A, Tacutu R, Fraifeld V (2009) The signaling hubs at the crossroad of longevity and age-related disease networks. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:516–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AGIM FRE CNRS/UJF 3405, Faculty of MedicineUniversity J. Fourier of GrenobleLa TroncheFrance
  2. 2.Escuela de Ingeniería Civil en InformáticaUniversidad de ValparaisoValparaísoChile

Personalised recommendations