, Volume 7, Issue 5, pp 375–382

Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J up-regulation after zinc exposure, replicative senescence or differentiation of human haematopoietic cells

  • Ioannis P. Trougakos
  • Graham Pawelec
  • Christos Tzavelas
  • Triantaphillia Ntouroupi
  • Efstathios S. Gonos
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10522-006-9052-8

Cite this article as:
Trougakos, I.P., Pawelec, G., Tzavelas, C. et al. Biogerontology (2006) 7: 375. doi:10.1007/s10522-006-9052-8


Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J (CLU) is a cellular senescence biomarker implicated in several physiological processes. In this work we have investigated CLU expression and function in human haematopoietic cells. We found that early passage human T cell clones (TCC) express minimal endogenous amounts of CLU, which are significantly elevated in late passage cells. Moreover, exposure of TCC to increased levels of the essential micronutrient zinc in culture resulted in intense induction of CLU. Because haematopoietic cells cease proliferation following induction of terminal differentiation, we also studied the expression profile of CLU in the leukemic progenitor cell lines K562 and HL-60. We found that, like TCC, both cell lines express minimal endogenous levels of CLU in their actively proliferating state. However, when induced to differentiate into their distinct cell types, CLU was found to be up-regulated specifically in those cells expressing the main differentiation markers. Enforced stable over-expression of CLU in K562 cells inhibited the expression of the CD14 differentiation marker and blocked differentiation to either monocytes/megacaryoblasts or to erythrocytes. Overall, our results suggest that CLU is actively involved in both replicative senescence and terminal differentiation in different types of human haematopoietic cells.


Clusterin/Apolipoprotein J Differentiation Haematopoietic cell lines Monoclonal human T lymphocytes Senescence Zinc 



clusterin/apolipoprotein J


T cell clones


vascular smooth muscle cell


12-phorbol-myristate acetate


dimethyl sulfoxide


intracellular clusterin/apolipoprotein J precursor


secreted clusterin/apolipoprotein J isoform


population doublings

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioannis P. Trougakos
    • 1
  • Graham Pawelec
    • 2
  • Christos Tzavelas
    • 1
  • Triantaphillia Ntouroupi
    • 1
  • Efstathios S. Gonos
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular & Cellular Ageing, Institute of Biological Research & BiotechnologyNational Hellenic Research FoundationAthensGreece
  2. 2.Center for Medical Research (ZMF)University of TübingenTübingenGermany

Personalised recommendations