Behavior Genetics

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 608–626 | Cite as

A Test-Replicate Approach to Candidate Gene Research on Addiction and Externalizing Disorders: A Collaboration Across Five Longitudinal Studies

  • Diana R. SamekEmail author
  • Jennifer Bailey
  • Karl G. Hill
  • Sylia Wilson
  • Susanne Lee
  • Margaret A. Keyes
  • Marina Epstein
  • Andrew Smolen
  • Michael Miller
  • Ken C. Winters
  • J. David Hawkins
  • Richard F. Catalano
  • William G. Iacono
  • Matt McGue
Original Research


This study presents results from a collaboration across five longitudinal studies seeking to test and replicate models of gene–environment interplay in the development of substance use and externalizing disorders (SUDs, EXT). We describe an overview of our conceptual models, plan for gene–environment interplay analyses, and present main effects results evaluating six candidate genes potentially relevant to SUDs and EXT (MAOA, 5-HTTLPR, COMT, DRD2, DAT1, and DRD4). All samples included rich longitudinal and phenotypic measurements from childhood/adolescence (ages 5–13) through early adulthood (ages 25–33); sample sizes ranged from 3487 in the test sample, to ~600–1000 in the replication samples. Phenotypes included lifetime symptom counts of SUDs (nicotine, alcohol and cannabis), adult antisocial behavior, and an aggregate externalizing disorder composite. Covariates included the first 10 ancestral principal components computed using all autosomal markers in subjects across the data sets, and age at the most recent assessment. Sex, ancestry, and exposure effects were thoroughly evaluated. After correcting for multiple testing, only one significant main effect was found in the test sample, but it was not replicated. Implications for subsequent gene–environment interplay analyses are discussed.


Addiction Alcohol Candidate gene studies Cannabis Externalizing disorders Nicotine Replication studies Substance use disorders 



Authors Ken C. Winters and Susanne Lee would like to thank Dr.’s George Realmuto and Irv Gottesman for their help consulting with the genetic portion of their study.


This research was supported by Grants DA024417, DA05147, DA13240, DA012995, DA024411-01-06, DA009679, DA036216, DA008093-15-18, and DA037280 (to S. W.) from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Grant AA09367, and Grant AA11886 from the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The first author (D. R. S.) was also supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch project 1006129. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the aforementioned funding agencies.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Diana R. Samek, Jennifer Bailey, Karl G. Hill, Sylia Wilson, Susanne Lee, Margaret A. Keyes, Marina Epstein, Andrew Smolen, Michael Miller, Ken C. Winters, J. David Hawkins, Richard F. Catalano, William G. Iacono, and Matt McGue declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Supplementary material

10519_2016_9800_MOESM1_ESM.docx (63 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 63 kb)


  1. APA (1994) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. American Psychological Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. August GJ, Realmuto GM, Crosby RD, MacDonald AW 3rd (1995) Community-based multiple-gate screening of children at risk for conduct disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 23(4):521–544CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey JA, Hill KG, Meacham MC, Young SE, Hawkins JD (2011) Strategies for characterizing complex phenotypes and environments: general and specific family environmental predictors of young adult tobacco dependence, alcohol use disorder, and co-occurring problems. Drug Alcohol Depend 118(2–3):444–451CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey JA, Samek DR, Keyes MA, Hill KG, Hicks BM, McGue M, Iacono WG, Epstein M, Catalano RF, Haggerty KP, Hawkins JD (2014) General and substance-specific predictors of young adult nicotine dependence, alcohol use disorder, and problem behavior: replication in two samples. Drug Alcohol Depend 138:161–168CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van Ijzendoorn MH (2011) Differential susceptibility to rearing environment depending on dopamine-related genes: new evidence and a meta-analysis. Dev Psychopathol 23(1):39–52CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH (2015) The hidden efficacy of interventions: gene × environment experiments from a differential susceptibility perspective. Annu Rev Psychol 66:66381–66409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bierut LJ, Agrawal A, Bucholz KK, Doheny KF, Laurie C, Pugh E et al (2010) A Genome-Wide Association study of alcohol depdence. PNAS 107(11):5082–5087CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Borenstein M, Hedges L, Higgins J, Rothstein H (2005) Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2. Biostat, EnglewoodGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronfenbrenner U, Ceci SJ (1994) Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: a bioecological model. Psychol Rev 101(4):568–586CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brookes K, Xu X, Chen W, Zhou K, Neale B, Lowe N, Anney R, Franke B, Gill M, Ebstein R, Buitelaar J, Sham P, Campbell D, Knight J, Andreou P, Altink M, Arnold R, Boer F, Buschgens C, Butler L, Christiansen H, Feldman L, Fleischman K, Fliers E, Howe-Forbes R, Goldfarb A, Heise A, Gabriels I, Korn-Lubetzki I, Johansson L, Marco R, Medad S, Minderaa R, Mulas F, Muller U, Mulligan A, Rabin K, Rommelse N, Sethna V, Sorohan J, Uebel H, Psychogiou L, Weeks A, Barrett R, Craig I, Banaschewski T, Sonuga-Barke EJS, Eisenberg J, Kuntsi J, Manor I, McGuffin P, Miranda A, D Oades R, Plomin R, Roeyers H, Rothenberger A, Sergeant J, Steinhausen HC, Taylor E, Thompson M, Faraone SV, Asherson P (2006) The analysis of 51 genes in DSM-IV combined type Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: association signals in DRD4, DAT1 and 16 other genes (vol 11, pg 934, 2006). Mol Psychiatry 11(12):1139Google Scholar
  11. Brown EC, Catalano RF, Fleming CB, Haggerty KP, Abbott RD (2005) Adolescent substance use outcomes in the Raising Healthy Children project: a two-part latent growth curve analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 73(4):699–710CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Byrd AL, Manuck SB (2014) MAOA, childhood maltreatment, and antisocial behavior: meta-analysis of a gene–environment interaction. Biol Psychiatry 75(1):9–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TE, Mill J, Martin J, Craig IW, Taylor A, Poulton R (2002) Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297(5582):851–854CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Caspi A, Sugden K, Moffitt TE, Taylor A, Craig IW, Harrington H, McClay J, Mill J, Martin J, Braithwaite A, Poulton R (2003) Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science 301(5631):386–389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Cannon M, McClay J, Murray R, Harrington H, Taylor A, Arseneault L, Williams B, Braithwaite A, Poulton R, Craig IW (2005) Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene × environment interaction. Biol Psychiatry 57(10):1117–1127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Catalano RF, Mazza JJ, Harachi TW, Abbott RD, Haggerty KP, Fleming CB (2003) Raising healthy children through enhancing social development in elementary school: results after 1.5 years. J Sch Psychol 41:143–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chabris CF, Hebert BM, Benjamin DJ, Beauchamp J, Cesarini D, van der Loos M, Johannesson M, Magnusson PK, Lichtenstein P, Atwood CS, Freese J, Hauser TS, Hauser RM, Christakis N, Laibson D (2012) Most reported genetic associations with general intelligence are probably false positives. Psychol Sci 23(11):1314–1323CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Chassin L, Fora DB, King KM (2004) Trajectories of alcohol and drug use and dependence from adolescence to adulthood: the effects of familial alcoholism and personality. J Abnorm Psychol 113(4):483–498CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analyses for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Lawurence Earlbaum Associates, Hillside, NJGoogle Scholar
  20. Dick DM, Aliev F, Krueger RF, Edwards A, Agrawal A, Lynskey M et al (2011) Genome-Wide Association study of conduct disorder symptomatology. Mol Psychiatry 16:800–808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dick DM, Agrawal A, Keller MC, Adkins A, Aliev F, Monroe S, Hewitt JK, Kendler KS, Sher KJ (2015) Candidate gene–environment interaction research: reflections and recommendations. Perspect Psychol Sci 10(1):37–59CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Duncan LE, Keller MC (2011) A critical review of the first 10 years of candidate gene-by-environment interaction research in psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry 168(10):1041–1049CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Duncan LE, Pollastri AR, Smoller JW (2014) Mind the gap: why many geneticists and psychological scientists have discrepant views about gene–environment interaction (G × E) research. Am Psychol 69(3):249–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Durbin CE, Hicks BM (2014) Personality and psychopathology: a stagnant field in need of development. Eur J Personal 28(4):362–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Epstein M, Hill KG, Bailey JA, Hawkins JD (2013) The effect of general and drug-specific family environments on comorbid and drug-specific problem behavior: a longitudinal examination. Dev Psychol 49(6):1151–1164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Estrada G, Fatjo-Vilas M, Munoz MJ, Pulido G, Minano MJ, Toledo E, Illa JM, Martin M, Miralles ML, Miret S, Campanera S, Bernabeu C, Navarro ME, Fananas L (2011) Cannabis use and age at onset of psychosis: further evidence of interaction with COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Acta Psychiatr Scand 123(6):485–492CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Faraone SV, Doyle AE, Mick E, Biederman J (2001) Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D-4 receptor gene and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Am J Psychiatry 158(7):1052–1057CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Feinn R, Nellissery M, Kranzler HR (2005) Meta-analysis of the association of a functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism with alcohol dependence. Am J Med Genet Part B 133b(1):79–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ficks CA, Waldman ID (2014) Candidate genes for aggression and antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of association studies of the 5HTTLPR and MAOA-uVNTR. Behav Genet 44(5):427–444CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Forero DA, Lopez-Leon S, Shin HD, Park BL, Kim DJ (2015) Meta-analysis of six genes (BDNF, DRD1, DRD3, DRD4, GRIN2B and MAOA) involved in neuroplasticity and the risk for alcohol dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 149:259–263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gelernter J, Kranzler HR, Sherva R, Almasy L, Koesterer R, Smith AH et al (2014) Genome-Wide Association study of alcohol dependence: significant findings in African and European-Americans including novel risk loci. Mol Psychiatry 19:41–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gelernter J, Kranzler HR, Sherva R, Almasy L, Herman AI, Koesterer R, Zhao H, Farrer LA (2015) Genome-Wide Association study of nicotine dependence in American populations: identification of novel risk loci in both African-Americans and European-Americans. Biol Psychiatry 77(5):493–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Haberstick BC, Smolen A (2004) Genotyping of three single nucleotide polymorphisms following whole genome preamplification of DNA collected from buccal cells. Behav Genet 34(5):541–547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Haberstick BC, Smolen A, Stetler GL, Tabor JW, Roy T, Casey R et al (2014) Simple sequence repeats in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: an ethnically diverse resource for genetic analysis of health and behavior. Behav Genet 44:487–497CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Haggerty KP, Fleming CB, Catalano RF, Harachi TW, Abbott RD (2006) Raising healthy children: examining the impact of promoting healthy driving behavior within a social development intervention. Prev Sci 7(3):257–267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Miller JY (1992) Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychol Bull 112(1):64–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Kosterman R, Abbott R, Hill KG (1999) Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 153(3):226–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hawkins JD, Smith BH, Hill KG, Kosterman R, Catalano RF, Abbott RD (2003) Understanding and preventing crime and violence: findings from the Seattle SOcial Development Project. In: Thornberry TP, Krohn MD (eds) Taking stock of juvenile delinquency: an overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, pp 255–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hawkins JD, Kosterman R, Catalano RF, Hill KG, Abbott RD (2005) Promoting positive adult functioning through social development intervention in childhood—long-term effects from the Seattle Social Development Project. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159(1):25–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hewitt JK (2012) Editorial policy on candidate gene association and candidate gene-by-environment interaction studies of complex traits. Behav Genet 42(1):1–2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hicks BM, Durbin CE, Blonigen DM, Iacono WG, McGue M (2012) Relationship between personality change and the onset and course of alcohol dependence in young adulthood. Addiction 107(3):540–548CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hill KG, Hawkins JD, Bailey JA, Catalano RF, Abbott RD, Shapiro VB (2010) Person-environment interaction in the prediction of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence in adulthood. Drug Alcohol Depend 110(1–2):62–69CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Hung CF, Lung FW, Hung TH, Chong MY, Wu CK, Wen JK, Lin PY (2012) Monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphism and suicide: an association study and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 136(3):643–649CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Iacono WG, Carlson SR, Taylor J, Elkins IJ, McGue M (1999) Behavioral disinhibition and the development of substance-use disorders: findings from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Dev Psychopathol 11(4):869–900CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson W, McGue M, Iacono WG (2009) School performance and genetic and environmental variance in antisocial behavior at the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Dev Psychol 45(4):973–987CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Johnston C, Lahey BB, Matthys W (2013) Editorial policy for candidate gene studies. J Abnorm Child Psychol 41(4):511–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jonas KG, Markon KE (2014) A meta-analytic evaluation of the endophenotype hypothesis: effects of measurement paradigm in the psychiatric genetics of impulsivity. J Abnorm Psychol 123(3):660–675CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Karg K, Burmeister M, Shedden K, Sen S (2011) The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR), stress, and depression meta-analysis revisited: evidence of genetic moderation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68(5):444–454CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Keller MC (2014) Gene × environment interaction studies have not properly controlled for potential confounders: the problem and the (simple) solution. Biol Psychiatry 75(1):18–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kendler KS, Gardner C, Dick DM (2011) Predicting alcohol consumption in adolescence from alcohol-specific and general externalizing genetic risk factors, key environmental exposures and their interaction. Psychol Med 41(7):1507–1516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kim-Cohen J, Caspi A, Taylor A, Williams B, Newcombe R, Craig IW, Moffitt TE (2006) MAOA, maltreatment, and gene–environment interaction predicting children’s mental health: new evidence and a meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 11(10):903–913CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kluger AN, Siegfried Z, Ebstein RP (2002) A meta-analysis of the association between DRD4 polymorphism and novelty seeking. Mol Psychiatry 7(7):712–717CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee YH, Song GG (2014) COMT Val158Met and PPAR gamma Pro12Ala polymorphisms and susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analysis. Neurol Sci 35(5):643–651CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lesch KP (2014) Editorial: Illuminating the dark matter of developmental neuropsychiatric genetics—strategic focus for future research in child psychology and psychiatry. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 55(3):201–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Li DW, Sham PC, Owen MJ, He L (2006) Meta-analysis shows significant association between dopamine system genes and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Hum Mol Genet 15(14):2276–2284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lopez LS, Croes EA, Sayed-Tabatabaei FA, Claes S, Van Broeckhoven C, van Duijn CM (2005) The dopamine D4 receptor gene 48-base-pair-repeat polymorphism and mood disorders: a meta-analysis. Biol Psychiatry 57(9):999–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Loukola A, Buchwald J, Gupta R, Palviainen T, Hallfors J, Tikkanen E et al (2015) A Genome-Wide Association study of a biomarker of nicotine metabolism. PLoS Genet 11(9):e1005498CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Maher BS, Marazita ML, Ferrell RE, Vanyukov MM (2002) Dopamine system genes and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a meta-analysis. Psychiatr Genet 12(4):207–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. McGue M, Slutske W, Taylor J, Iacono WG (1997) Personality and substance use disorders: I. Effects of gender and alcoholism subtype. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 21(3):513–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. McGue M, Slutske W, Iacono WG (1999) Personality and substance use disorders: II. Alcoholism versus drug use disorders. J Consult Clin Psychol 67(3):394–404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. McGue M, Keyes M, Sharma A, Elkins I, Legrand L, Johnson W, Iacono WG (2007) The environments of adopted and non-adopted youth: evidence on range restriction from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Behav Genet 37(3):449–462CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. McGue M, Zhang Y, Miller MB, Basu S, Vrieze S, Hicks B, Malone S, Oetting WS, Iacono WG (2013) A Genome-Wide Association Study of behavioral disinhibition. Behav Genet 43(5):363–373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Miller MB, Basu S, Cunningham J, Eskin E, Malone SM, Oetting WS, Schork N, Sul JH, Iacono WG, McGue M (2012) The Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research Genome-Wide Association study. Twin Res Hum Genet 15(6):767–774CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Miller R, Wankerl M, Stalder T, Kirschbaum C, Alexander N (2013) The serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and cortisol stress reactivity: a meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 18(9):1018–1024CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Monroe SM, Simons AD (1991) Diathesis-stress theories in the context of life stress research: implications for the depressive disorders. Psychol Bull 110(3):406–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Munafo MR, Gage SH (2013) Improving the reliability and reporting of genetic association studies. Drug Alcohol Depend 132(3):411–413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Munafo MR, Bowes L, Clark TG, Flint J (2005) Lack of association of the COMT (Val(158/108) Met) gene and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Mol Psychiatry 10(8):765–770CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Munafo MR, Yalcin B, Willis-Owen SA, Flint J (2008) Association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and approach-related personality traits: meta-analysis and new data. Biol Psychiatry 63(2):197–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Munafo MR, Durrant C, Lewis G, Flint J (2009a) Gene × environment interactions at the serotonin transporter locus. Biol Psychiatry 65(3):211–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Munafo MR, Timpson NJ, David SP, Ebrahim S, Lawlor DA (2009b) Association of the DRD2 gene Taq1A polymorphism and smoking behavior: a meta-analysis and new data. Nicotine Tob Res 11(1):64–76CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Murphy SE, Norbury R, Godlewska BR, Cowen PJ, Mannie ZM, Harmer CJ, Munafo MR (2013) The effect of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on amygdala function: a meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 18(4):512–520CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Muthén LK, Muthén BO (1998–2012) Mplus User’s Guide, 7th edition. Muthén and Muthén Los Angeles, CAGoogle Scholar
  73. Neville MJ, Johnstone EC, Walton RT (2004) Identification and characterization of ANKK1: a novel kinase gene closely linked to DRD2 on chromosome band 11q23.1. Hum Mutat 23:540–545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Nikolaidis A, Gray JR (2010) ADHD and the DRD4 exon III 7-repeat polymorphism: an international meta-analysis. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 5(2–3):188–193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Ohmoto M, Sakaishi K, Hama A, Morita A, Nomura M, Mitsumoto Y (2013) Association between dopamine receptor 2 TaqIA polymorphisms and smoking behavior with an influence of ethnicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis update. Nicotine Tob Res 15(3):633–642CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Peterson PA, Brown SP (2005) On the use of beta coefficients in meta-analysis. J Appl Psychol 90(1):175–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Quinn PD, Fromme K (2011) The role of person–environment interactions in increased alcohol use in the transition to college. Addiction 106(6):1104–1113CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Quinn PD, Harden KP (2013) Differential changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking and the escalation of substance use from adolescence to early adulthood. Dev Psychopathol 25(1):223–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Reif A, Weber H, Domschke K, Klauke B, Baumann C, Jacob CP, Strohle A, Gerlach AL, Alpers GW, Pauli P, Hamm A, Kircher T, Arolt V, Wittchen HU, Binder EB, Erhardt A, Deckert J (2012) Meta-analysis argues for a female-specific role of MAOA-uVNTR in panic disorder in four European populations. Am J Med Genet Part B 159(7):786–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reif A, Richter J, Straube B, Hofler M, Lueken U, Gloster AT, Weber H, Domschke K, Fehm L, Strohle A, Jansen A, Gerlach A, Pyka M, Reinhardt I, Konrad C, Wittmann A, Pfleiderer B, Alpers GW, Pauli P, Lang T, Arolt V, Wittchen HU, Hamm A, Kircher T, Deckert J (2014) MAOA and mechanisms of panic disorder revisited: from bench to molecular psychotherapy. Mol Psychiatry 19(1):122–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Risch N, Herrell R, Lehner T, Liang KY, Eaves L, Hoh J, Griem A, Kovacs M, Ott J, Merikangas KR (2009) Interaction between the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), stressful life events, and risk of depression: a meta-analysis. JAMA 301(23):2462–2471CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Robins LN, Helzer JE, Croughan J, Williams JBW, Spitzer RL (1981) NIMH diagnostic interview schedule: version III. National Institute of Mental Health, RockvilleGoogle Scholar
  83. Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen HU, Helzer JE, Babor TF, Burke J, Farmer A, Jablenski A, Pickens R, Regier DA et al (1988) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. An epidemiologic Instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45(12):1069–1077CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rutter M (2012) Response to commentaries on discussion paper gene–environment interdependence. Eur J Dev Psychol 9(4):426–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Samek DR, Keyes MA, Hicks BM, Bailey J, McGue M, Iacono WG (2014) General and specific predictors of nicotine and alcohol dependence in early adulthood: genetic and environmental influences. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 75(4):623–634CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Samek DR, Hicks BM, Keyes MA, Bailey J, McGue M, Iacono WG (2015) Gene–environment interplay between parent–child relationship problems and externalizing disorders in adolescence and young adulthood. Psychol Med 45(2):333–344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Samek DR, Hicks BM, Keyes MA, McGue M, Iacono WG (2016) Antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders: evidence for gene × environment × development interaction. Dev Psychopathol. doi: 10.1017/S0954579416000109
  88. Sameroff AJ, Mackenzie MJ (2003) Research strategies for capturing transactional models of development: the limits of the possible. Dev Psychopathol 15(3):613–640CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Gibbon M (1987) Structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Stapleton JA, Sutherland G, O’Gara C (2007) Association between dopamine transporter genotypes and smoking cessation: a meta-analysis. Addict Biol 12(2):221–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Taylor S (2013) Molecular genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comprehensive meta-analysis of genetic association studies. Mol Psychiatry 18(7):799–805CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Taylor A, Kim-Cohen J (2007) Meta-analysis of gene–environment interactions in developmental psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 19(4):1029–1037CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Vink JM, Smit AB, de Geus EJC, Sullivan P, Wilemsen G, Hottenga J et al (2009) Genome-Wide Association study of smoking initiation and current smoking. Am J Hum Genet 84(3):367–379CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Vrieze SI, Vaidyanathan U, Hicks BM, Iacono WG, McGue M (2014) The role of constraint in the development of nicotine, marijuana, and alcohol dependence in young adulthood. Behav Genet 44(1):14–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. WHO (1990) Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Version 1.0. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  96. Winters KC (1999) A new multiscale measure of adult substance abuse. J Subst Abuse Treat 16(3):237–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Winters KC (2015) Minnesota drug abuse and ADHD study. Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MNGoogle Scholar
  98. Winters KC, Henly GA (1993) Adolescent diagnostic interview schedule and manual. Western Psychological Services, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  99. Winters KC, Stinchfield RD, Fulkerson J, Henly GA (1993) Measuring alcohol and cannabis use disorders in an adolescent clinical sample. Psychol Addict Behav 7(3):185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Winters KC, Latimer W, Stinchfield RD (1999) The DSM-IV criteria for adolescent alcohol and cannabis use disorders. J Stud Alcohol 60(3):337–344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Wu J, Xiao H, Sun H, Zou L, Zhu LQ (2012) Role of dopamine receptors in ADHD: a systematic meta-analysis. Mol Neurobiol 45(3):605–620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Yang B, Chan RC, Jing J, Li T, Sham P, Chen RY (2007) A meta-analysis of association studies between the 10-repeat allele of a VNTR polymorphism in the 3’-UTR of dopamine transporter gene and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 144B(4):541–550CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhang L, Hu L, Li X, Zhang J, Chen B (2014) The DRD2 rs1800497 polymorphism increase the risk of mood disorder: evidence from an update meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 15:871–877Google Scholar
  104. Zou YF, Wang F, Feng XL, Li WF, Tian YH, Tao JH, Pan FM, Huang F (2012) Association of DRD2 gene polymorphisms with mood disorders: a meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 136(3):229–237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana R. Samek
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jennifer Bailey
    • 2
  • Karl G. Hill
    • 2
  • Sylia Wilson
    • 3
  • Susanne Lee
    • 4
  • Margaret A. Keyes
    • 3
  • Marina Epstein
    • 2
  • Andrew Smolen
    • 5
  • Michael Miller
    • 3
  • Ken C. Winters
    • 4
  • J. David Hawkins
    • 2
  • Richard F. Catalano
    • 2
  • William G. Iacono
    • 3
  • Matt McGue
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  2. 2.School of Social WorkUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  5. 5.Institute for Behavior GeneticsUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations