Behavior Genetics

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 282–294 | Cite as

Genetic Influences on Political Ideologies: Twin Analyses of 19 Measures of Political Ideologies from Five Democracies and Genome-Wide Findings from Three Populations

  • Peter K. HatemiEmail author
  • Sarah E. Medland
  • Robert Klemmensen
  • Sven Oskarsson
  • Levente Littvay
  • Christopher T. Dawes
  • Brad Verhulst
  • Rose McDermott
  • Asbjørn Sonne Nørgaard
  • Casey A. Klofstad
  • Kaare Christensen
  • Magnus Johannesson
  • Patrik K. E. Magnusson
  • Lindon J. Eaves
  • Nicholas G. Martin
Original Research


Almost 40 years ago, evidence from large studies of adult twins and their relatives suggested that between 30 and 60 % of the variance in social and political attitudes could be explained by genetic influences. However, these findings have not been widely accepted or incorporated into the dominant paradigms that explain the etiology of political ideology. This has been attributed in part to measurement and sample limitations, as well the relative absence of molecular genetic studies. Here we present results from original analyses of a combined sample of over 12,000 twins pairs, ascertained from nine different studies conducted in five democracies, sampled over the course of four decades. We provide evidence that genetic factors play a role in the formation of political ideology, regardless of how ideology is measured, the era, or the population sampled. The only exception is a question that explicitly uses the phrase “Left–Right”. We then present results from one of the first genome-wide association studies on political ideology using data from three samples: a 1990 Australian sample involving 6,894 individuals from 3,516 families; a 2008 Australian sample of 1,160 related individuals from 635 families and a 2010 Swedish sample involving 3,334 individuals from 2,607 families. No polymorphisms reached genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis. The combined evidence suggests that political ideology constitutes a fundamental aspect of one’s genetically informed psychological disposition, but as Fisher proposed long ago, genetic influences on complex traits will be composed of thousands of markers of very small effects and it will require extremely large samples to have enough power in order to identify specific polymorphisms related to complex social traits.


Ideology Politics GWAS Attitudes Authoritarianism 



We thank the families for their participation. Funding was provided by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (241944, 339462, 389927, 389875, 389891, 389892, 389938, 442915, 442981, 496739,552485, 552498), the Australian Research Council (A7960034, A79906588, A79801419, DP0770096, DP0212016, DP0343921),the FP-5 GenomEUtwin Project (QLG2-CT-2002-01254), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (AA07535,AA10248, AA13320, AA13321, AA13326, AA14041, MH-20030 MH66206), the U.S. National Science Foundation (SES-1047687,09210080,729493,0721707, 0721378), the Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation (P2008-0072:1), the Ragnar Söderberg Foundation (E9/11), the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (2006-1623), the Swedish Research Council (2009-1713), and the Velux foundation, Denmark. Statistical analyses were carried out on the Genetic Cluster Computer, which is financially supported by the Netherlands Scientific Organization (NWO 480-05-003). S.E.M., is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council Fellowship Scheme. B.V is supported by National Institute on Drug Abuse (5R25DA026119).

Supplementary material

10519_2014_9648_MOESM1_ESM.docx (107 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 106 kb)


  1. Alford JR, Funk C, Hibbing JR (2005) Are political orientations genetically transmitted? Am Polit Sci Rev 99(02):153–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beckwith J, Morris CA (2008) Twin studies of political behavior: untenable assumptions? Perspectives Polit 6(04):785–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benjamin DJ, Cesarini D, van der Loos MJ, Dawes CT, Koellinger PD, Magnusson PK, Chabris CF, Conley D, Laibson D, Johannesson M, Visscher PM (2012) The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(21):8026–8031PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boardman JD (2011) Is gene-environment interplay relevant to the study of political behaviors and attitudes? In: Hatemi PK, McDermott R (eds) Man is by nature a political animal. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  5. Boardman JD, Blalock CL, Pampel FC, Hatemi PK, Heath AC, Eaves LJ (2011) Population composition, public policy, and the genetics of smoking. Demography 48(4):1517–1533PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boardman JD, Roettger ME, Domingue BW, McQueen MB, Haberstick BC, Harris KM (2012) Gene–environment interactions related to body mass: School policies and social context as environmental moderators. J Theor Polit 24(3):370–388PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouchard TJ Jr, McGue M (2003) Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences. J Neurobiol 54(1):4–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouchard TJ Jr, Lykken DT, McGue M, Segal NL, Tellegen A (1990) Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science 250(4978):223–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charney E (2008a) Genes and ideologies. Perspectives Polit 6(02):299–319Google Scholar
  10. Charney E (2008b) Politics, genetics, and “greedy reductionism”. Perspectives Polit 6(02):337–343Google Scholar
  11. Charney E (2012) Behavior genetics and postgenomics. Behav Brain Sci 35:331–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charney E, English W (2012) Candidate genes and political behavior. Am Polit Sci Rev 106(01):1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cranmer SJ, Dawes CT (2012) The heritability of foreign policy preferences. Twin Res Hum Genet 15(01):52–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dawes CT, Fowler JH (2009) Partisanship, voting, and the dopamine D2 receptor gene. J Polit 71(03):1157–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duncan LE, Keller MC (2011) A critical review of the first 10 years of candidate gene-by-environment interaction research in psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry 168(10):1041–1049PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eaves LJ, Eysenck HJ (1974) Genetics and the development of social attitudes. Nature 249(454):288–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eaves LJ, Hatemi PK (2008) Transmission of attitudes toward abortion and gay rights: effects of genes, social learning and mate selection. Behav Genet 38(3):247–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eaves LJ, Hatemi PK (2011) Do we choose our spouse based on our in-laws? Resolving the effects of family background and spousal choice for educational attainment, religious practice, and political preference. Soc Sci Q 92(5):1253–1278Google Scholar
  19. Eaves LJ, Eysenck HJ, Martin NG (1989) Genes, culture, and personality: an empirical approach. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Eaves L, Martin N, Heath A (1990) Religious affiliation in twins and their parents: testing a model of cultural inheritance. Behav Genet 20(1):1–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Eaves L, Martin N, Heath A, Schieken R, Meyer J, Silberg J, Neale M, Corey L (1997) Age changes in the causes of individual differences in conservatism. Behav Genet 27(2):121–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eaves L, Heath A, Martin N, Maes H, Neale M, Kendler K, Kirk K, Corey L (1999) Comparing the biological and cultural inheritance of personality and social attitudes in the Virginia 30,000 study of twins and their relatives. Twin Res 2(2):62–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eaves LJ, Hatemi PK, Prom-Womley EC, Murrelle L (2008) Social and genetic influences on adolescent religious attitudes and practices. Soc Forces 86(4):1621–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eaves LJ, Hatemi PK, Heath AC, Martin NG (2011) Modeling biological and cultural inheritance. In: Hatemi PK, McDermott R (eds) Man is by nature a political animal evolution, biology, and politics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 101–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fazekas Z, Littvay L (forthcoming) The importance of context in the genetic transmission of us party identification. Political PsychologyGoogle Scholar
  26. Fowler JH, Dawes CT (2008) Two Genes Predict Voter Turnout. The Journal of Politics 70(03):579–594Google Scholar
  27. Fowler JH, Dawes C (2013) In Defense of Genopolitics. Am Polit Sci Rev 107(02):362–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fowler JH, Schreiber D (2008) Biology, politics, and the emerging science of human nature. Science 322(5903):912–914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fowler JH, Baker LA, Dawes C (2008) Genetic variation in political participation. Am Polit Sci Rev 102(02):233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hatemi PK (2012) The Intersection of Behavioral Genetics and Political Science: Introduction to the Special Issue. Twin Research and Human Genetics 15(01):1-5Google Scholar
  31. Hatemi PK (2013) The influence of major life events on economic attitudes in a world of gene- environment interplay. Am J Polit Sci 57(4):987–1000Google Scholar
  32. Hatemi PK, McDermott R (2011a) Evolution as a theory for political behavior. In: Hatemi PK, McDermott R (eds) Man is by nature and nurture a political animal. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 13–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hatemi PK, McDermott R (2011b) Man is by nature a political animal: evolution, biology, and politics. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hatemi PK, McDermott R (2012a) The genetics of politics: discovery, challenges, and progress. Trends Genet 28(10):525–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hatemi PK, McDermott R (2012b) A neurobiological approach to foreign policy analysis: identifying individual differences in political violence. Foreign Policy Anal 8(2):111–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hatemi PK, McDermott R (2012c) The political psychology of biology, genetics, and behavior. Polit Psychol 33(3):307–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hatemi PK, Medland SE, Morley KI, Heath AC, Martin NG (2007) The genetics of voting: an Australian twin study. Behav Genet 37(3):435–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hatemi PK, Funk CL, Medland SE, Maes HM, Silberg JL, Martin NG, Eaves LJ (2009a) Genetic and environmental transmission of political attitudes over a life time. J Polit 71(3):1141–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hatemi PK, Medland SE, Eaves LJ (2009b) Do genes contribute to the “gender gap”? J Polit 71(01):262–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hatemi PK, Alford JR, Hibbing JR, Martin NG, Eaves LJ (2009c) Is there a “party” in your genes? Polit Res Q 62(3):584–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hatemi PK, Hibbing JR, Medland SE, Keller MC, Alford JR, Smith KB, Martin NG, Eaves LJ (2010) Not by twins alone: Using the extended family design to investigate genetic influence on political beliefs. Am J Polit Sci 54(3):798–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hatemi PK, Dawes CT, Frost-Keller A, Settle JE, Verhulst B (2011a) Integrating social science and genetics: news from the political front. Biodemography Soc Biol 57(1):67–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hatemi PK, Gillespie NA, Eaves LJ, Maher BS, Webb BT, Heath AC, Medland SE, Smyth DC, Beeby HN, Gordon SD, Montgomery GW, Zhu G, Byrne EM, Martin NG (2011b) A genome-wide analysis of liberal and conservative political attitudes. J Polit 73(1):271–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hatemi PK, Eaves L, McDermott R (2012a) It’s the end of ideology as we know it. J Theor Polit 24(3):345–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hatemi PK, Byrne E, McDermott R (2012b) Introduction: What is a ‘gene’ and why does it matter for political science? J Theor Polit 24(3):305–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Howie BN, Donnelly P, Marchini J (2009) A flexible and accurate genotype imputation method for the next generation of genome-wide association studies. PLoS Genet 5(6):e1000529PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Littvay L (2012) Do heritability estimates of political phenotypes suffer from an equal environment assumption violation? Evidence from an empirical study. Twin Res Hum Genet 15(1):6–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Littvay L, Métneki J, Tárnoki ÁD, Tárnoki DL (2013) The Hungarian twin registry. Twin Res Hum Genet 16(Special Issue 01):185–189Google Scholar
  49. Loehlin JC (1993) Nature, nurture, and conservatism in the Australian twin study. Behav Genet 23(3):287–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lykken DT, Bouchard TJ, McGue M, Tellegen A (1990) The Minnesota Twin Family Registry: some initial findings. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 39(1):35–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Martin NG, Eaves LJ, Heath AC, Jardine R, Feingold LM, Eysenck HJ (1986) Transmission of social attitudes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83(12):4364–4368PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McDermott R, Tingley D, Cowden J, Frazzetto G, Johnson DD (2009) Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(7):2118–2123PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Medland SE, Hatemi PK (2009) Political science, biometric theory, and twin studies: a methodological introduction. Polit Anal 17(2):191–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Medland SE, Zayats T, Glaser B, Nyholt DR, Gordon SD, Wright MJ, Montgomery GW, Campbell MJ, Henders AK, Timpson NJ, Peltonen L, Wolke D, Ring SM, Deloukas P, Martin NG, Smith GD, Evans DM (2010) A variant in LIN28B is associated with 2D:4D finger-length ratio, a putative retrospective biomarker of prenatal testosterone exposure. Am J Hum Genet 86(4):519–525PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mondak JJ, Hibbing MV, Canache D, Seligson MA, Anderson MR (2010) Personality and civic engagement: an integrative framework for the study of trait effects on political behavior. Am Polit Sci Rev 104(01):85–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Neale MC, Boker SM, Xie G, Maes HH (2003) Mx: statistical modeling, 6th edn. Department of Psychiatry, RichmondGoogle Scholar
  57. Nicolae DL, Gamazon E, Zhang W, Duan S, Dolan ME, Cox NJ (2010) Trait-associated SNPs are more likely to Be eQTLs: annotation to enhance discovery from GWAS. PLoS Genet 6(4):e1000888PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Orey BDA, Park H (2012) Nature, nurture, and ethnocentrism in the minnesota twin study. Twin Res Hum Genet 15(01):71–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Posner S, Baker L, Heath A, Martin N (1996) Social contact, social attitudes, and twin similarity. Behav Genet 26(2):123–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Price AL, Patterson NJ, Plenge RM, Weinblatt ME, Shadick NA, Reich D (2006) Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet 38(8):904–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rietveld CA, Medland SE, Derringer J, Yang J, Esko T, Martin NW, Westra H-J, Shakhbazov K, Abdellaoui A, Agrawal A, Albrecht E, Alizadeh BZ, Amin N, Barnard J, Baumeister SE, Benke KS, Bielak LF, Boatman JA, Boyle PA, Davies G, de Leeuw C, Eklund N, Evans DS, Ferhmann R, Fischer K, Gieger C, Gjessing HK, Hägg S, Harris JR, Hayward C, Holzapfel C, Ibrahim-Verbaas CA, Ingelsson E, Jacobsson B, Joshi PK, Jugessur A, Kaakinen M, Kanoni S, Karjalainen J, Kolcic I, Kristiansson K, Kutalik Z, Lahti J, Lee SH, Lin P, Lind PA, Liu Y, Lohman K, Loitfelder M, McMahon G, Vidal PM, Meirelles O, Milani L, Myhre R, Nuotio M-L, Oldmeadow CJ, Petrovic KE, Peyrot WJ, Polašek O, Quaye L, Reinmaa E, Rice JP, Rizzi TS, Schmidt H, Schmidt R, Smith AV, Smith JA, Tanaka T, Terracciano A, van der Loos MJHM, Vitart V, Völzke H, Wellmann J, Yu L, Zhao W, Allik J, Attia JR, Bandinelli S, Bastardot F, Beauchamp J, Bennett DA, Berger K, Bierut LJ, Boomsma DI, Bültmann U, Campbell H, Chabris CF, Cherkas L, Chung MK, Cucca F, de Andrade M, De Jager PL, De Neve J-E, Deary IJ, Dedoussis GV, Deloukas P, Dimitriou M, Eiríksdóttir G, Elderson MF, Eriksson JG, Evans DM, Faul JD, Ferrucci L, Garcia ME, Grönberg H, Guðnason V, Hall P, Harris JM, Harris TB, Hastie ND, Heath AC, Hernandez DG, Hoffmann W, Hofman A, Holle R, Holliday EG, Hottenga J-J, Iacono WG, Illig T, Järvelin M-R, Kähönen M, Kaprio J, Kirkpatrick RM, Kowgier M, Latvala A, Launer LJ, Lawlor DA, Lehtimäki T, Li J, Lichtenstein P, Lichtner P, Liewald DC, Madden PA, Magnusson PKE, Mäkinen TE, Masala M, McGue M, Metspalu A, Mielck A, Miller MB, Montgomery GW, Mukherjee S, Nyholt DR, Oostra BA, Palmer LJ, Palotie A, Penninx BWJH, Perola M, Peyser PA, Preisig M, Räikkönen K, Raitakari OT, Realo A, Ring SM, Ripatti S, Rivadeneira F, Rudan I, Rustichini A, Salomaa V, Sarin A-P, Schlessinger D, Scott RJ, Snieder H, St Pourcain B, Starr JM, Sul JH, Surakka I, Svento R, Teumer A, Study TLC, Tiemeier H, van Rooij FJA, Van Wagoner DR, Vartiainen E, Viikari J, Vollenweider P, Vonk JM, Waeber G, Weir DR, Wichmann H-E, Widen E, Willemsen G, Wilson JF, Wright AF, Conley D, Davey-Smith G, Franke L, Groenen PJF, Hofman A, Johannesson M, Kardia SLR, Krueger RF, Laibson D, Martin NG, Meyer MN, Posthuma D, Thurik AR, Timpson NJ, Uitterlinden AG, van Duijn CM, Visscher PM, Benjamin DJ, Cesarini D, Koellinger PD (2013) GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. Science 340(6139):1467–1471Google Scholar
  62. Rose RJ, Kaprio J, Williams CJ, Viken R, Obremski K (1990) Social contact and sibling similarity: facts, issues, and red herrings. Behav Genet 20(6):763–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Scarr S, McCartney K (1983) How people make their own environments: a theory of genotype → environment effects. Child Dev 54(2):424–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Shultziner D (2013) Genes and politics: a new explanation and evaluation of twin study results and association studies in political science. Polit Anal 21:350–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Skytthe A, Kyvik K, Bathum L, Holm N, Vaupel JW, Christensen K (2006) The Danish Twin Registry in the new millennium. Twin Res Hum Genet 9(6):763–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Smith K, Hatemi P (2013) OLS is AOK for ACE: a regression-based approach to synthesizing political science and behavioral genetics models. Polit Behav 35(2):383–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Smith KB, Oxley DR, Hibbing MV, Alford JR, Hibbing JR (2011) Linking genetics and political attitudes: reconceptualizing political ideology. Polit Psychol 32(3):369–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Smith K, Alford JR, Hatemi PK, Eaves LJ, Funk C, Hibbing JR (2012) Biology, ideology, and epistemology: how do we know political attitudes are inherited and why should we care? Am J Polit Sci 56(1):17–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stam AC, Von Hagen-Jamar A, Worthington ABH (2012) Fear and attitudes towards torture and preventive war. Twin Res Hum Genet 15(01):60–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Treier S, Hillygus DS (2009) The nature of political ideology in the contemporary electorate. Public Opin Q 73(4):679–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Truett KR, Eaves LJ, Walters EE, Heath AC, Hewitt JK, Meyer JM, Silberg J, Neale MC, Martin NG, Kendler KS (1994) A model system for analysis of family resemblance in extended kinships of twins. Behav Genet 24(1):35–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Verhulst B, Estabrook R (2012) Using genetic information to test causal relationships in cross-sectional data. J Theor Polit 24(3):328–344PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Verhulst B, Hatemi PK (2011) The transmission of political attitudes and personality traits across generations. In: Annual meeting of the Midwestern Political Science Association, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  74. Verhulst B, Hatemi PK (2013) Gene-environment interplay in twin models. Polit Anal 21:368–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Verhulst B, Hatemi PK, Martin NG (2010) The nature of the relationship between personality traits and political attitudes. Personality Individ Differ 49(4):306–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Verhulst B, Hatemi PK, Eaves LJ (2012a) Disentangling the importance of psychological predispositions and social constructions in the organization of american political ideology. Polit Psychol 33(3):375–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Verhulst B, Eaves LJ, Hatemi PK (2012b) Correlation not causation: the relationship between personality traits and political ideologies. Am J Polit Sci 56(1):34–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wilson GD, Patterson JR (1968) A new measure of conservatism. Br J Soc Clin Psychol 7(4):264–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wright MJ, Martin NG (2004) Brisbane Adolescent Twin Study: Outline of study methods and research projects. Aust J Psychol 56(2):65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter K. Hatemi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  • Sarah E. Medland
    • 1
  • Robert Klemmensen
    • 4
  • Sven Oskarsson
    • 6
  • Levente Littvay
    • 7
  • Christopher T. Dawes
    • 8
  • Brad Verhulst
    • 5
  • Rose McDermott
    • 9
  • Asbjørn Sonne Nørgaard
    • 4
  • Casey A. Klofstad
    • 10
  • Kaare Christensen
    • 11
  • Magnus Johannesson
    • 12
  • Patrik K. E. Magnusson
    • 13
  • Lindon J. Eaves
    • 5
  • Nicholas G. Martin
    • 1
  1. 1.Genetic EpidemiologyQueensland Institute of Medical ResearchBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.United States Studies CentreUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Political Science, Microbiology and BiochemistryThe Pennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA
  4. 4.Institut for StatskundskabSyddansk UniversitetOdenseDenmark
  5. 5.Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral GeneticsRichmondUSA
  6. 6.Department of GovernmentUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  7. 7.Department of Political ScienceCentral European UniversityBudapestHungary
  8. 8.Department of PoliticsNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  9. 9.Department of Political ScienceBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  10. 10.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA
  11. 11.Department of Epidemiology, Danish Twin RegistryUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdense MDenmark
  12. 12.Department of EconomicsStockholm School of EconomicsStockholmSweden
  13. 13.Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska InstituteSolnaSweden

Personalised recommendations