Since the early twenty-first century, tall building construction has gained significant momentum in the urban cities of Turkey as a result of the population and economic growth. Accruing more than 1500 buildings by year 2015, the majority of the country’s exposure now clusters across the seismically active landscape of the Istanbul metropolitan area. As such, the underlying earthquake risk calls for the investigation of the seismic performance of these structures. While hazard studies for Istanbul are available, the literature is still devoid of studies related to the seismic risk assessment of tall buildings located there. As an attempt to fill this gap, this paper focuses on the characterization and quantification of the existing exposure to allow risk assessment both at single building and portfolio levels. To this end, an extensive tall building inventory containing the structural drawings of 94 buildings is compiled and thoroughly examined to make a projection of the design practice. After establishing statistically representative archetypes, we quantified their dynamic response to 1999 Düzce and Kocaeli earthquake ground motions. We notice a maximum difference of 100% in the maximum interstory drift ratios (equaling a 2% increase in absolute value) between two different tall building archetypes. Moreover, the analysis results indicate that the incident angle of the applied ground-motion can be a discriminant factor between structural collapse and survival. The outcome of this study puts forward a robust basis for prospective structural analyses, collapse risk assessment as well as loss estimation analyses of tall buildings in Istanbul.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
ACI (2014) Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-14): Commentary on Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318R-14)
Ancheta T, Darragh R, Stewart J et al (2013) PEER NGA-West2 database, Technical Report 2013/03. California
Bal IE, Crowley H, Pinho R (2008a) Displacement-based earthquake loss assessment for an earthquake scenario in Istanbul. J Earthq Eng 12:12–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460802013388
Bal İE, Crowley H, Pinho R, Gülay FG (2008b) Detailed assessment of structural characteristics of Turkish RC building stock for loss assessment models. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 28:914–932. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SOILDYN.2007.10.005
Bommer J, Spence R, Erdik M et al (2002) Development of an earthquake loss model for Turkish catastrophe insurance. J Seismol 6:431–446
Boore DM (2010) Orientation-independent, nongeometric-mean measures of seismic intensity from two horizontal components of motion. Bull Seismol Soc Am 100:1830–1835. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120090400
Coleman J, Spacone E (2001) Localization issues in force-based frame elements. J Struct Eng 127. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2001)127:11(1257)
Crowley H, Pagani M, Pinho R et al (2013) Development of the OpenQuake engine, the Global Earthquake Model’s open-source software for seismic risk assessment. Nat Hazards. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0618-x
CSI (1999) Integrated finite element analysis and design of structures, SAP2000
Durukal E, Erdik M, Uçkan E (2008) Earthquake risk to industry in Istanbul and its management. Nat Hazards 44:199–212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-007-9119-0
Erdik M, Aydinoglu N, Fahjan Y et al (2003) Earthquake risk assessment for Istanbul metropolitan area. Earthq Eng Eng Vib, 2
Erdik M, Durukal E (2007) Earthquake risk and its mitigation in Istanbul. Nat Hazards, 44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-007-9110-9
FEMA (2010) Multi-hazard loss estimation methodology earthquake Model Hazus®-MH MR5: Technical manual. Washington, D.C.
Fllippou FE, Popov EP, Bertero VV (1983) Effects of bond deterioration on hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete joints, Washington
Gallo PQ, Patricio B, Stefano P, Athol J. Carr (2020) Seismic design of RC Walls in Chile: observed damage and identified deficiencies after the 2010 Maule Earthquake. Canterbury
Griffiths JHP, Irfanoglu A, Pujol S (2007) Istanbul at the threshold: an evaluation of the seismic risk in Istanbul. Earthq Spectra, 23. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2424988
GRM (2015) Türkiye kapsamında ve özellikle İstanbul’da mevcut yüksek binaların fiziksel envanterinin hazırlanması (http://www.grmbilisim.com/yuksek-bina-veri-toplama-derleme-uretim-yubi/). Istanbul
Hall JF (2006) Problems encountered from the use (or misuse) of Rayleigh damping. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 35:525–545. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.541
Kent DC, Park R (1971) Flexural members with confined concrete. J Struct Div, 97.
LATBSDC (2017) An alternative procedure for seismic analysis and design of tall buildings located in the Los Angeles region, 2017 Edition. The Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council.
Lehman DE, Lowes LN, Pugh J, Whitman Z (2015) Nonlinear analysis methods for flexural seismic reinforced concrete walls. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, pp 57–73
Lehman DE, Turgeon JA, Birely AC et al (2013) Seismic behavior of a modern concrete coupled wall. J Struct Eng 139:1371–1381. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000853
Mazzoni S, Mckenna F, Scott MH et al (2006) Open system for earthquake engineering simulation (OpenSees) OpenSees Command Language Manual
Neuenhofer Ansgar, Filippou FC (1997) Evaluation of nonlinear frame finite-element models. J Struct Eng, 123
Odabasi O (2016) Characteristic structural features of tall buildings in Turkey and their dynamic behavior. Bogazici University, MSc Thesis. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.24443.72488
Ozmen G, Girgin K, Durgun Y (2014). Torsional irregularity in multi-story structures. Int J Adv Struct Eng. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40091-014-0070-5
Parsons T, Toda S, Stein RS et al (2000) Heightened odds of large earthquakes near Istanbul: an interaction-based probability calculation. Science 288(5466):661–665
Paulay T, Priestley MJN (1992) Seismic design of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings. Wiley, New York
PEER (2010) ATC 72-1: Modeling and acceptance criteria for seismic design and analysis of tall buildings, California
PEER (2017) Tall buildings initiative: guidelines for performance-based seismic design of tall buildings, PEER Report 2017/06. California
Pugh JS, Lowes LN, Lehman DE (2015) Nonlinear line-element modeling of flexural reinforced concrete walls. Eng Struct 104:174–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.08.037
Reitherman R (2009) Nonstructural earthquake damage, California. Available from https://www.curee.org/image_gallery/calendar/essays/2010-CUREE_excerpt.pdf
Saatcioglu M, Razvi S (1999) Confinement model for high-strength concrete. J Struct 125:10–18. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1999)125
Scott MH, Fenves GL (2006) Plastic Hinge integration methods for force-based Beam-Column elements. J Struct Eng 132:244–252. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2006)132:2(244)
Scott MH, Hamutcuoglu OM (2008) Numerically consistent regularization of force-based frame elements. Int J Numer Methods Eng 76:1612–1631. https://doi.org/10.1002/nme.2386
Shahi SK, Baker JW (2014) An efficient algorithm to identify strong-velocity pulses in multicomponent ground motions. Bull Seismol Soc Am. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120130191
Spacone E, Filippou FC, Taucer FF (1996) Fibre beam-column model for non-linear analysis of R/C frames: Part I. Formulation Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 25:711–726
TEC (2007) The Turkish earthquake code: specification for structures to be built in disaster areas. Turkish Chamber of Civil Engineers (In Turkish). Available from https://www.imo.org.tr/resimler/dosya_ekler/bab4c5794c4be19_ek.pdf
Wallace JW (2012) Behavior, design, and modeling of structural walls and coupling beams—lessons from recent laboratory tests and earthquakes. Int J Concr Struct Mater 6:3–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40069-012-0001-4
Wallace JW (2007) Modelling issues for tall reinforced concrete core wall buildings. Struct Des Tall Spec Build 16:615–632. https://doi.org/10.1002/tal.440
The first author gratefully acknowledges the financial support provided by the University School of Advanced Studies of Pavia (IUSS Pavia) and the computational resources made available by RED Risk + Engineering for his Ph.D. research. The tall building inventory was assembled as a result of the joint efforts of Bogazici University and the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urbanization. We would like to thank, in particular, Prof. Sinan Akkar, Dr. Cüneyt Tüzün, and Dr. Merve Çağlar and Ömer Ülker for their valuable contributions in this process. Finally, the authors thank three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that helped improve the quality of this paper.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Odabasi, O., Kohrangi, M. & Bazzurro, P. Tall buildings in Turkey, their characteristic structural features and dynamic behaviour. Bull Earthquake Eng 19, 2105–2124 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-021-01067-3
- Tall buildings
- Structural modelling
- Dynamic analysis