Advertisement

Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 16, Issue 9, pp 3957–3999 | Cite as

Seismic vulnerability scenarios of Unreinforced Masonry churches in New Zealand

  • T. Goded
  • A. Lewis
  • M. Stirling
Original Research Paper
  • 186 Downloads

Abstract

A vulnerability analysis of c.300 unreinforced Masonry churches in New Zealand is presented. The analysis uses a recently developed vulnerability index method (Cattari et al. in Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering NZSEE 2015 conference, Rotorua, New Zealand, 2015a; b; SECED 2015 conference: earthquake risk and engineering towards a Resilient World, Cambridge; Goded et al. in Vulnerability analysis of unreinforced masonry churches (EQC 14/660)—final report, 2016; Lagomarsino et al. in Bull Earthq Eng, 2018), specifically designed for New Zealand churches, based on a widely tested approach for European historical buildings. It consists of a macroseismic approach where the seismic hazard is defined by the intensity and correlated to post seismic damage. The many differences in typologies of New Zealand and European churches, with very simple architectural designs and a majority of one nave churches in New Zealand, justified the need to develop a method specifically created for this country. A statistical analysis of the churches damaged during the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence was previously carried out to develop the vulnerability index modifiers for New Zealand churches. This new method has been applied to generate seismic scenarios for each church, based on the most likely seismic event for 500 years return period, using the latest version of New Zealand’s National Seismic Hazard Model. Results show that highly vulnerable churches (e.g. stone churches and/or with a weak structural design) tend to produce higher expected damage even if the intensity level is lower than for less vulnerable churches in areas with slightly higher seismicity. The results of this paper provide a preliminary tool to identify buildings requiring in depth structural analyses. This paper is considered as a first step towards a vulnerability analysis of all the historical buildings in the country, in order to preserve New Zealand’s cultural and historical heritage.

Keywords

Churches New Zealand Seismic damage scenarios Unreinforced masonry Vulnerability curves Vulnerability index method 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank New Zealand’s Earthquake Commission (EQC) for funding part of this project (“Vulnerability analysis of unreinforced masonry churches”, reference 14/660). All the building owners and property managers are greatly thanked for allowing the inspection of their buildings. The great support received has been greatly appreciated. This report has greatly benefitted from the internal reviews from Dr. Sheng-Lin Lin and Dr. Vinod Sadashiva from GNS Science.

Supplementary material

10518_2018_351_MOESM1_ESM.docx (28.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 29337 kb)

References

  1. Anagnostopoulou M, Bruneau M, Gavin HP (2010) Performance of churches during the darfield earthquake of September 4. Bull N Z Soc Earthq Eng 43(4):374–381Google Scholar
  2. Augusti G, Ciampoli M, Giovenale P (2001) Seismic vulnerability of monumental buildings. Struct Saf 23:253–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Augusti G, Ciampoli M, Zanobi S (2002) Bounds to the probability of collapse of monumental buildings. Struct Saf 24:89–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bannister S, Gledhill K (2012) Evolution of the 2010–2012 Canterbury earthquake sequence. N Z J Geol Geophys 55:295–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bazzurro A, Pinna M, Porta F (2015) Seismic damage and vulnerability assessment of churches in New Zealand: proposal of a survey form for emergency management and models for the safety verification. Master thesis, Genoa University, Italy (in Italian) Google Scholar
  6. Benedetti D, Petrini V (1984) On seismic vulnerability of masonry buildings: proposal of an evaluation procedure. L’Ind Ital delle Costr 18:66–78 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  7. Bernardini A (ed) (2000) The vulnerability of buildings: national scale evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of ordinary buildings. CNR-GNDT, Rome and CD-ROM (in Italian) Google Scholar
  8. Bernardini A, Giovinazzi S, Lagomarsino S, Parodi S (2007) The vulnerability assessment of current buildings by a macroseismic approach derived from the EMS-98 scale. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Congreso Nacional de Ingenieria Sísmica, Gerona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  9. Binda L, Modena C, Casarin F, Lorenzoni F, Cantini L, Munda S (2011) Emergency actions and investigations on cultural heritage after the L’Aquila earthquake: the case of the Spanish Fortress. Bull Earthq Eng 9:105–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Braga F, Dolce M, Liberatore D (1982) A statistical study on damage buildings and an ensuing review of the M.S.K.-76 scale. In: Proceedings of the 7th European conference on earthquake engineering, Athens, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  11. Cattari S, Ottonelli D, Pinna M, Lagomarsino S, Clark W, Giovinazzi S, Ingham JM, Marotta A, Liberatore D, Sorrentino L, Leite J, Lourenço PB, Goded T (2015a) Towards the definition of a New Zealand specific approach for the seismic vulnerability analysis and post-earthquake damage assessment of URM churches. In: Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering NZSEE 2015 conference, 10–12 April 2015, Rotorua, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  12. Cattari S, Ottonelli D, Pinna M, Lagomarsino S, Clark W, Giovinazzi S, Ingham JM, Marotta A, Liberatore D, Sorrentino L, Leite J, Lourenço PB, Goded T (2015b) Damage and vulnerability analysis of unreinforced Masonry Churches after the Canterbury (New Zealand) Earthquake sequence 2010–2011. In: SECED 2015 conference: earthquake risk and engineering towards a Resilient World, 9–10 July 2015, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  13. Corsanego A, Petrini V (1994) Evaluation of criteria of seismic vulnerability of the existing building patrimony on the national territory. Ing Sismica 1:16–24 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  14. Dolce M, Di Bucci D (2017) Comparing recent Italian earthquakes. Bull Earthq Eng 15:497–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dowrick DJ, Rhoades DA (2005) Revised models for attenuation of modified Mercalli intensity in New Zealand earthquakes. Bull N Z Soc Earthq Eng 38(4):185–214Google Scholar
  16. Dowrick DJ, Hancox GT, Perrin ND, Dellow GD (2008) The modified Mercalli intensity scale—revisions arising from New Zealand experience. Bull NZ Soc Earthq Eng 41(3):193–205Google Scholar
  17. Giovinazzi S (2005) The vulnerability assessment and the damage scenario in seismic risk analysis. Ph.D. thesis, Technical University Carolo-Wilhelmina, Braunschweig, Germany, and University of Florence, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  18. Goded T, Buforn E, Macau A (2012a) Site effects evaluation in Málaga city’s historical centre (Southern Spain). Bull Earthq Eng 10(3):813–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goded T, Irizarry J, Buforn E (2012b) Vulnerability and risk analysis of monuments in Málaga city’s historical centre (Southern Spain). Bull Earthq Eng 10(3):839–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goded T, Cattari S, Lagomarsino S, Giovinazzi S, Ingham JM, Marotta A, Liberatore D, Sorrentino L, Ottonelli D, Pinna M, Clark W (2016) Vulnerability analysis of unreinforced masonry churches (EQC 14/660)—final report. GNS science consultancy report 2016/53. http://www.eqc.govt.nz/research/research-papers/1399-Vulnerability-analysis-unreinforced-masonry-churches
  21. Goded T, Beaupre A, DeMarco M, Dutra T, Gogichaishvili A, Haley D, Hyman A, Kepka Calvetti N, Potter J, Coomer M, Wright K, King A (2017) Understanding different perspectives on the preservation of community and heritage buildings in the Wellington region. Nat Hazards, New Zealand.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-017-2759-9 Google Scholar
  22. Grünthal G (ed) (1998) European macroseismic scale 1998 (EMS-98). Cahiers du Centre Européen de Géodynamique et de Séismologie 15, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  23. Ingham JM, Lourenço PB, Leite J, Castelino S, Colaco E (2012) Using simplified indices to forecast the seismic vulnerability of New Zealand unreinforced masonry churches. In: Proceedings of the Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2012 conference, Gold Coast, Australia, 7–9 December 2012Google Scholar
  24. Kwon O-S, Elnashai A (2006) The effect of material and ground motion uncertainty on the seismic vulnerability curves of RC structure. Eng Struct 28:289–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lagomarsino S (1998) A new methodology for the post-earthquake investigation of ancient churches. In: Proceedings of the 11th European conference on earthquake engineering, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  26. Lagomarsino S (2006) On the vulnerability assessment of monumental buildings. Bull Earthq Eng 4:445–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lagomarsino S (2009) Damage assessment of churches after L’Aquila earthquake. Bull Earthq Eng 10:73–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lagomarsino S, Giovinazzi S (2006) Macroseismic and mechanical models for the vulnerability and damage assessment of current buildings. Bull Earthq Eng 4:415–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lagomarsino S, Resemini S (2009) The assessment of damage limitation state in the seismic analysis of monumental buildings. Earthq Spectra 25:323–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lagomarsino S, Giovinazzi S, Podestà S, Resemini S (2003) RISK-UE. An advanced approach to earthquake risk scenarios with applications to different European towns. WP5: vulnerability assessment of historical and monumental buildings. DISEG, University of Genoa, Italy, p 90Google Scholar
  31. Lagomarsino S, Cattari S, Ottonelli D, Giovinazzi S (2015) Sviluppo di una nuova procedura per il rilievo del danno delle chiese nella fase di post-terremoto. In: Atti del XVI Convegno ANIDIS “L’Ingegneria Sismica in Italia”, L’Aquila, 13–17 September 2015 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  32. Lagomarsino S, Cattari S, Ottonelli D, Giovinazzi S (2018) Earthquake damage assessment of masonry churches: proposal for rapid and detailed forms and derivation of empirical vulnerability. Bull Earthq Eng (submitted)Google Scholar
  33. Lantada N, Irizarry J, Barbat AH, Goula X, Roca A, Susagna T, Pujades LG (2010) Seismic hazard and risk scenarios for Barcelona, Spain, using the Risk-UE vulnerability index method. Bull Earthq Eng 8:201–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Leite J, Lourenço PB, Ingham JM (2013) Statistical assessment of damage to churches affected by the 2010–2011 Canterbury (New Zealand) earthquake sequence. J Earthq Eng 17(1):73–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lourenço PB, Oliveira DV, Leite JC, Ingham JM, Modena C, da Porto F (2013) Simplified indexes for the seismic assessment of masonry buildings: international database and validation. Eng Fail Anal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2013.02.014 Google Scholar
  36. Mangalathu S, Soleimani F, Jiang J, DesRoches R, Padgett JE (2017) Sensitivity of fragility curves to parameter uncertainty using Lasso regression. In: Proceedings of the 16th world conference on earthquake engineering, Santiago de Chile, Chile, Paper 135Google Scholar
  37. Marotta A, Goded T, Giovinazzi S, Lagomarsino S, Liberatore D, Sorrentino L, Ingham JM (2015) An inventory of unreinforced masonry churches in New Zealand. Bull N Z Soc Earthq Eng 48(3):171–190Google Scholar
  38. Marotta A, Sorrentino L, Domenico L, Ingham JM (2016) Vulnerability assessment of unreinforced masonry churches following the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence. J Earthq Eng 00:1–23Google Scholar
  39. Michele M, Di Stefano R, Chiaraluce L, Cattaneo M, De Gori P, Monachesi G, Latorre D, Marzorati S, Valoroso L, Ladina C, Chiarabba C, Lauciani V, Fares M (2016) The Amatrice 2016 seismic sequence: a preliminary look at the mainshock and aftershocks distribution. Ann Geophys-Italy.  https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-7227 Google Scholar
  40. Modena C, Casarin F, da Porto F, Munari M (2010) L’Aquila 6th April 2009 earthquake: emergency and post-emergency activities on cultural heritage buildings. In: Garevski M, Ansal A (eds) Geotechnical, geological, and earthquake engineering, vol 17. Springer, Berlin, pp 495–521Google Scholar
  41. Mouroux P, Le Brun B (2006) Presentation of RISK-UE project. Bull Earthq Eng 4:323–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Padgett JE, DesRoches R (2007) Sensitivity of seismic response and fragility to parameter uncertainty. J Struct Eng 133(12):1710–1718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Perrin ND, Heron D, Kaiser A, Van Houtte C (2015) Vs30 and NZS1170.5 site class maps of New Zealand. In: Proceedings of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering NZSEE 2015 conference, 10–12 April 2015, Rotorua, New Zealand, Paper O-07, 76–83Google Scholar
  44. Sandi H, Floricel I (1994) Analysis of seismic risk affecting the existing building stock. In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2, Vienna, Austria, pp 1105–1110Google Scholar
  45. Sousa Oliveira C (2003) Seismic vulnerability of historical constructions: a contribution. Bull Earthq Eng 1:37–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Standards New Zealand (2004) Structural design actions part 5. Earthquake actions—New Zealand, New Zealand Standard NZS1170.5:2004Google Scholar
  47. Standards New Zealand (2016) Structural design actions part 5: Earthquake actions—New Zealand, New Zealand Standard NZS1170.5:2004 incorporating amendment no. 1Google Scholar
  48. Stirling MW, McVerry GH, Gerstenberger M, Litchfield NJ, Van Dissen R, Berryman KR, Barnes P, Wallace L, Villamor P, Langridge RM, Lamarche G, Nodder S, Reyners M, Bradley B, Rhoades D, Smith WD, Nicol A, Pettinga J, Clark K, Jacobs K (2012) National seismic hazard model for New Zealand: 2010 update. Bull Seismol Soc Am 102(4):1514–1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Whitman RV, Reed JW, Hong ST (1973) Earthquake damage probability matrices. In: Proceedings of the 5th European conference on earthquake engineering, Rome, pp 25–31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geological and Nuclear SciencesLower HuttNew Zealand
  2. 2.Otago UniversityDunedinNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations