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Reconnaissance of geotechnical aspects of the 2016 Central Italy earthquakes

  • G. Lanzo
  • P. Tommasi
  • E. Ausilio
  • S. Aversa
  • F. Bozzoni
  • R. Cairo
  • A. d’Onofrio
  • M. G. Durante
  • S. Foti
  • S. Giallini
  • M. Mucciacciaro
  • A. Pagliaroli
  • S. Sica
  • F. Silvestri
  • G. Vessia
  • P. Zimmaro
Original Research Paper
  • 162 Downloads

Abstract

Between August and November 2016, three major earthquake events occurred in Central Italy. The first event, with M6.1, took place on 24 August 2016, the second (M5.9) on 26 October, and the third (M6.5) on 30 October 2016. Each event was followed by numerous aftershocks. The 24 August event caused massive damages especially to the villages of Arquata del Tronto, Accumoli, Amatrice, and Pescara del Tronto. In total, there were 299 fatalities, generally from collapses of unreinforced masonry dwellings. The October events caused significant new damage in the villages of Visso, Ussita, and Norcia, although not producing fatalities, since the area had largely been evacuated. The Italy–US Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance team investigated earthquake effects on slopes, villages, and major infrastructures. The approach adopted to carry out post-earthquake reconnaissance surveys was to combine traditional reconnaissance activities of on-ground evidences and mapping of field conditions with advanced imaging and damage detection routines enabled by state-of-the-art geomatics technology. Presented herein are the outcomes of the post-event reconnaissance surveys conducted after both the August main shock and the October events, focusing on geotechnical aspects, such as earthquake-triggered slope failures, mud volcanoes, performance of different geotechnical structures (i.e., dams, retaining walls, rockfall barriers, road embankments) and building damage patterns related to site amplification.

Keywords

2016 Central Italy earthquakes Post-earthquake reconnaissance Landslides Mud volcanoes Dams Retaining walls Rockfall barriers Embankments Site effects Building damage 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The GEER Association is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through the Geotechnical Engineering Program under Grant No. CMMI-1266418. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF. The GEER Association is made possible by the vision and support of the NSF Geotechnical Engineering Program Directors: Dr. Richard Fragaszy and the late Dr. Cliff Astill. GEER members also donate their time, talent, and resources to collect time-sensitive field observations of the effects of extreme events. The Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) is gratefully acknowledged. In particular, the support of Prof. Mauro Dolce and Engs. Paola Pagliara and Paola Bertuccioli is greatly appreciated. Organizations within Italy that supported the activities reported herein include the Italian Geotechnical Society; the Consortium ReLUIS (Network of Italian Laboratories of Earthquake Engineering), headquartered in the University of Naples Federico II; the Department of Engineering of University of Sannio, Benevento; Politecnico di Torino, which provided technical and financial support; Eucentre (European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering), Pavia, which provided support for one team member; “LAGIC s.r.l.,- Servizi per l’Ingegneria e la Geologia (Montalto Uffugo, Cosenza, Italy)” and the Geotechnical Laboratory of Sapienza University of Rome, Faculty of Architecture (Geom. Silvano Silvani) which performed laboratory tests on the material sampled at Monteleone di Fermo and Santa Vittoria in Matenano, respectively. We thank Prof. Jonathan P. Stewart (University of California, Los Angeles), leader of the US-based GEER team, Prof. Kevin W. Franke (Brigham Young university), Prof. Bret N. Lingwall (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology), and Prof. Robert E. Kayen (United States Geological Survey) for their fundamental contribution on the reconnaissance activities, data analysis, and 3D models development. Finally, the Authors express their gratitude to two anonymous reviewers whose observations and suggestions are greatly appreciated.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018
, corrected publication April 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Lanzo
    • 1
  • P. Tommasi
    • 2
  • E. Ausilio
    • 3
  • S. Aversa
    • 4
  • F. Bozzoni
    • 5
  • R. Cairo
    • 3
  • A. d’Onofrio
    • 6
  • M. G. Durante
    • 7
  • S. Foti
    • 8
  • S. Giallini
    • 9
  • M. Mucciacciaro
    • 10
  • A. Pagliaroli
    • 11
  • S. Sica
    • 10
  • F. Silvestri
    • 12
  • G. Vessia
    • 9
  • P. Zimmaro
    • 7
  1. 1.Sapienza Università di RomaRomeItaly
  2. 2.Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheRomeItaly
  3. 3.Università della CalabriaRendeItaly
  4. 4.Università degli Studi di Napoli ParthenopeNaplesItaly
  5. 5.EucentrePaviaItaly
  6. 6.Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly
  7. 7.University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)Los AngelesUSA
  8. 8.Politecnico di TorinoTurinItaly
  9. 9.Università di Chieti-PescaraPescaraItaly
  10. 10.Università del SannioBeneventoItaly
  11. 11.Università degli Studi di Chieti-PescaraPescaraItaly
  12. 12.Università di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly

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