Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 16, Issue 9, pp 3653–3673 | Cite as

The effect of soil–structure interaction on the seismic risk to buildings

  • Farid Khosravikia
  • Mojtaba MahsuliEmail author
  • Mohammad Ali Ghannad
Original Research Paper


This paper studies the effect of soil–structure interaction (SSI) on the seismic risk estimates of buildings. Risk, in this context, denotes the probability distribution of seismic monetary loss due to structural and nonstructural damage. The risk analysis here uncovers the probability that SSI is beneficial, detrimental, or uninfluential on seismic losses. The analyses are conducted for a wide range of buildings with different structural systems, numbers of stories, and foundation sizes on various soil types. A probabilistic approach is employed to account for prevailing sources of uncertainty, i.e., those in ground motion and in the properties of the soil–structure system. In this approach, probabilistic models are employed to predict the response, damage, and repair cost of buildings. To properly account for the ground motion uncertainty, a suite of nearly 7000 accelerograms recorded on soil is employed. It is concluded that structures on very soft soils are extremely likely to incur smaller losses due to SSI, which is in line with the common belief that SSI is a favorable effect for such systems. However, the results for buildings on moderately soft soils reveal a considerable probability, up to 0.4, that SSI has an adverse effect on the structure and increases the seismic losses.


Soil–structure interaction Seismic risk Monetary loss Structural and nonstructural damage Monte Carlo sampling 



The financial support from Sharif University of Technology through Grant Nos. G930929 and G930930 is gratefully acknowledged. The authors thank Dr. Hossein Jahankhah from International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology for fruitful discussions.

Supplementary material

10518_2018_314_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (377 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 377 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental EngineeringThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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