Strong-motion observations from the OGS temporary seismic network during the 2012 Emilia sequence in northern Italy

Abstract

Strong-motion data consisting of peak ground acceleration and velocity and 5 % damped response spectra are presented for 46 earthquakes of the Emilia seismic sequence which occurred in the Po Plain (northern Italy) in 2012. The data were recorded by the OGS temporary network installed close to the town of Ferrara following the main shock of May 20, 2012. Ground-motion peak parameters and spectral responses are compared with the ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) of Bindi et al. (Bull Earthq Eng 9:1899–1920, 2011) for soft soils and reverse faults. Peak ground accelerations are in general in good agreement with those predicted by GMPE, while predicted peak ground velocities underestimate the observed data, especially for stronger events at more distant stations. The response spectra follow the trend in peak ground velocities, with observed values higher than predicted values at longer periods. This behavior has been interpreted as a site effect due to the deep soft alluvial cover of the Po Plain, which promotes ground motion characterized by a large low-frequency spectral content that is not yet well modeled by the Italian GMPE. A peculiar behavior was shown by the event occurring on June 6, 04:08:33 UTC, \(\hbox {M}=4.5\), located at the eastern edge of the Po Plain, which produced peak ground accelerations exceeding three times the values estimated by attenuation laws. Such a great discrepancy could be related to post-critically reflected S-waves and multiples from the Moho (SmSM).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. Bakun WH, Joyner WB (1984) The ml scale in central california. Bull Seismol Soc Am 74(5):1827–1843

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bindi D, Pacor F, Luzi L, Puglia R, Massa M, Ameri G, Paolucci R (2011) Ground-motion prediction equations derived from the italian strong motion database. Bull Earthq Eng 9:1899–1920

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bordoni P, Azzara RA, Cara F, Cogliano R, Cultrera G, Di Giulio G, Fodarella A, Milana G, Pucillo S, Riccio G, Rovelli A, Puglia R, Ameri G (2012) Preliminary results from EMERSITO, a rapid response network for site-effect studies. Ann Geophys 55. doi:10.4401/ag-6153

  4. Bragato PL, Sugan M, Augliera P, Massa M, Vuan A, Saraò A (2011) Moho reflection effects in the po plain (northern Italy) observed from instrumental and intensity data. Bull Seismol Soc Am 101(5):2142–2152. doi:10.1785/0120100257

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Burger RW, Somerville PG, Barker JS, Herrmann RB, Helmberger DV (1987) The effect of crustal structure on strong ground motion attenuation relations in eastern north america. Bull Seismol Soc Am 77(2):420–439

    Google Scholar 

  6. Castelli V, Bernardini F, Camassi R, Caracciolo CH, Ercolani E, Postpischl L (2012) Looking for missing earthquake traces in the Ferrara-Modena plain: an update on historical seismicity Ann Geophys 55. doi:10.4401/ag-6110

  7. Cocco M, Ardizzoni F, Azzara RM, Dall’Olio L, Delladio A, Di Bona M, Malagnini L, Margheriti L, Nardi A (2001) Broadband waveforms and site effects at a borehole seismometer in the po alluvial basin (Italy). Ann Geophys 44:137–154

    Google Scholar 

  8. Eberhart-Phillips D, McVerry G, Reyners M (2010) Influence of the 3d distribution of q and crustal structure on ground motions from the 2003 mw 72 fiordland new zealand earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 100(3):1225–1240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Fantoni R, Franciosi R (2010) Tectono-sedimentary setting of the Po Plain and Adriatic foreland. Rend Fis Acc Lincei 21(1):S197–S209. doi:10.1007/s12210-010-0102-4

  10. Herrmann RB, Ammon CJ (2002) Computer Programs in Seismology, Version 330. Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, http://www.eassluedu/eqc/eqc_cps/CPS/CPS330/cps330cpdf

  11. Liu KS, Tsai YB (2009) Large effects of moho reflections (smsm) on peak ground motion in northwestern taiwan. Bull Seismol Soc Am 99(1):255–267

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Malagnini L, Herrmann RB, Munafò I, Buttinelli M, Anselmi M, Akinci A, Boschi E (2012) The 2012 Ferrara seismic sequence: regional crustal structure earthquake sources and seismic hazard. Geophys Res Lett. doi:10.1029/2012GL053214

  13. Martelli L, Severi P, Biavati G, Rosselli S, Camassi R, Ercolani, Marcellini A, Tento A, Gerosa D, Albarello D, Guerrini F, Lunedei, Pileggi D, Pergalani F, Compagnoni M, Fioravante V, Giretti D (2011) Analysis of the local seismic hazard for the stability tests of the main bank of the Po River. Gruppo Nazionale di Geofisica della Terra Solida (GNGTS), \(30^{\circ }\) Convegno Nazionale, Trieste, pp 14–17 November 2011

  14. Meletti C, D’Amico V, Ameri G, Rovida A, Stucchi M (2012) Seismic hazard in the Po Plain and the 2012 Emilia earthquakes. Ann Geophys 55. doi:10.4401/ag-6158

  15. Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni, (NTC) (2008) Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni. Ministerial Decree 14/01/2008/, Official, Gazette no. 29, February 4, 2008

  16. OGS, 2013 Bollettino della Rete Sismometricadel Friuli Venezia Giulia CRS, Udine, Italy, http://www.crsinogsit/bollettino/RSFVG, last accessed March 2013

  17. Oliver J, Ewing M (1957) Higher modes of continental rayleigh waves. Bull Seismol Soc Am 47:187–204

    Google Scholar 

  18. Oliver J, Ewing M (1958) Normal modes of continental surface waves. Bull Seismol Soc Am 48:33–49

    Google Scholar 

  19. Pacor F, Paolucci R, Luzi L, Sabetta F, Spinelli A, Gorini A, Nicoletti M, Marcucci S, Filippi L, Dolce M (2011) Overview of the italian strong-motion database itaca 1.0. Bull Earthq Eng 9:1723–1739

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Priolo E, Romanelli M, Barnaba C, Mucciarelli M, Laurenzano G, Dall’Olio L, Abu-Zeid N, Caputo R, Santarato G, Vignola L, Lizza C, Di Bartolomeo P (2012) The Ferrara thrust earthquakes of May-June 2012: preliminary site response analysis at the sites of the OGS temporary network. Ann Geophys 55. doi:10.4401/ag-6172

  21. Rovida A, Camassi R, Gasperini P, Stucchi M (eds.) (2011) CPTI11, the 2011 version of the Parametric Catalogue of Italian Earthquakes. Milano, Bologna, http://emidius.mi.ingv.it/CPTI[1]. doi:10.6092/ingv.it-cpti11

  22. Saraò A, Peruzza L (2012) Fault plane solutions from moment tensor inversion and preliminary Coulomb stress analysis in the Emilia Plain. Ann Geophys 55. doi:10.4401/ag-6134

  23. Scognamiglio L, Margheriti L, Mele F, Tinti E, Bono A, De Gori P, Lauciani V, Lucente FP, Mandiello AG, Marcocci C, Mazza S, Pintore S, Quintiliani M (2012) The 2012 Pianura Padana Emiliana seismic sequence: locations and magnitudes. Ann Geophys 55. doi:10.4401/ag-6159

  24. Stucchi M, Meletti C, Montaldo V, Crowley H, Calvi GM, Boschi E (2011) Seismic hazard assessment (2003–2009) for the italian building code. Bull Seismol Soc Am 101:1885–1911. doi:10.1785/0120100130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Sugan M, Vuan A (2012) Evaluating the relevance of moho reflections in accelerometric data: application to an inland japanese earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 102(2):842–847. doi:10.1785/0120110085

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Sugan M, Vuan A (2013) On the ability of Moho reflections to affect the ground motion in northeastern Italy: a case study of the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. Bull Earthquake Eng. doi:10.1007/s10518-013-9564-y

  27. Tertulliani A, Arcoraci L, Berardi M, Bernardini F, Brizuela B, Castellano C, Del Mese S, Ercolani E, Graziani L, Maramai A, Rossi A, Sbarra M, Vecchi M (2012) The Emilia 2012 sequence: a macroseismic survey. Ann Geophys 55. doi:10.4401/ag-6140

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research has been supported by the Dipartimento della Protezione Civile: Project S2, ProCiv-INGV (2012–2013). We thank Angela Saraò and Pier Luigi Bragato, who gave us much support and many suggestions and two anonymous reviewers to improve the manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Carla Barnaba.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Barnaba, C., Laurenzano, G., Moratto, L. et al. Strong-motion observations from the OGS temporary seismic network during the 2012 Emilia sequence in northern Italy. Bull Earthquake Eng 12, 2165–2178 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-014-9610-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Strong-motion data
  • Emilia 2012 earthquake
  • Moho