Reference database for seismic ground-motion in Europe (RESORCE)

Abstract

This paper presents the overall procedure followed in order to assemble the most recent pan-European strong-motion databank: Reference Database for Seismic Ground-Motion in Europe (RESORCE). RESORCE is one of the products of the SeIsmic Ground Motion Assessment (SIGMA; projet-sigma.com) project. RESORCE is intended to be a single integrated accelerometric databank for Europe and surrounding areas for use in the development and testing of ground-motion models and for other engineering seismology and earthquake engineering applications. RESORCE aims to contribute to the improvement of earthquake risk studies in Europe and surrounding areas. RESORCE principally updates and extends the previous pan-European strong-motion databank (Ambraseys et al. in Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata 45:113–129, 2004a) with recently compiled Greek, Italian, Swiss and Turkish accelerometric archives. The updates also include earthquake-specific studies published in recent years. The current content of RESORCE includes 5,882 multi-component and uniformly processed accelerograms from 1,814 events and 1,540 strong-motion stations. The moment magnitude range covered by RESORCE is \(2.8 \le \hbox {M}_{\mathrm{w}} \le 7.8\). The source-to-site distance interval extends to 587 km and distance information is given by the common point- and extended-source distance measures. The paper presents the current features of RESORCE through simple statistics that also quantify the differences in metadata and strong-motion processing with respect to the previous version of the pan-European strong-motion databank.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    A similar magnitude conversion process was also implemented in HEAD and T-NSMP during their compilation (Theodulidis et al. 2004; Akkar et al. 2010). For Greek events, Papazachos et al. (2002) was used for \(M_L-M_w\) conversion. The empirical relationships of Akkar et al. (2010) were used for \(M_w\) conversion of Turkish earthquakes if they are reported in other magnitudes. The resulting moment magnitude estimations are taken into account in RESORCE for Greek events, post-2004 Turkish earthquakes as well as for those that occurred before 2004 whenever they are not included in ISESD or ESMD.

  2. 2.

    \(\hbox {R}_{\mathrm{epi}}\): epicentral distance; \(\hbox {R}_{\mathrm{hyp}}\): hypocentral distance; \(\hbox {R}_{\mathrm{JB}}\): closest distance to the surface projection of ruptured fault; \(\hbox {R}_{\mathrm{rup}}\): closest distance to ruptured fault.

  3. 3.

    Leonard (2010) recently proposed a set of scaling relationships that relate \(\hbox {M}_{\mathrm{w}}\) with rupture length, rupture width and rupture area. These relationships are self-consistent as they enable to estimate any one of these parameters from the others. Thus, the empirical relationships proposed by Leonard (2010) supersede Wells and Coppersmith (1994). The impact of these alternative approaches on the estimated extended-source distance measures is examined by running a set of analyses that consists of 1,582 strong-motion records. The computed \(\hbox {R}_{\mathrm{JB}}\) values from Leonard (2010) and Wells and Coppersmith (1994) did not show significant deviations from each other. Thus, the extended-source distance computations are completed by using the rupture length and width formulations provided by Wells and Coppersmith (1994).

  4. 4.

    Next Generation Attenuation Project (Power et al. 2008).

  5. 5.

    Non-standard errors refer to types of problems in strong-motion records that cannot be dealt by standard filtering or baseline adjustment techniques. Some of the frequently observed non-standard errors are high-frequency spikes, S-wave trigger, insufficient digitizer resolution, insufficient sampling rate, multiple shocks, early termination of coda and clipping of accelerograms (Douglas 2003).

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Acknowledgments

The strong-motion databank presented in this paper has been developed within the SeIsmic Ground Motion Assessment (SIGMA) project. The SIGMA project is funded and supported by EDF, AREVA, CEA and ENEL. The initial phase of the study used the SHARE strong-motion databank that is one of the deliverables of the SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe) Project funded under contract 226967 of the EC-Research Framework Programme FP7. The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey provided financial support to the 2nd author for conducting some part of his doctoral studies in France. The authors benefitted significantly from the suggestions and comments of two anonymous reviewers for their comments for improving the quality of the article. The authors would like thank Mr. Ozkan Kale and Mr. Saeed Moghimi for their support during the data processing stage of RESORCE. The manuscript is revised thoroughly by Prof. Tanvir Wasti.

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Appendix

Appendix

See Table 5 and 6.

Table 5 Major reference sources used in the compilation of RESORCE strong-motion databank
Table 6 Earthquake-specific literature used in earthquake and strong-motion station metadata in RESORCE

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Akkar, S., Sandıkkaya, M.A., Şenyurt, M. et al. Reference database for seismic ground-motion in Europe (RESORCE). Bull Earthquake Eng 12, 311–339 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-013-9506-8

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Keywords

  • Pan-European strong-motion databank
  • Strong-motion data processing
  • Earthquake and strong-motion station metadata compilation