Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine

, Volume 164, Issue 5, pp 655–657 | Cite as

Variability of the Expression of Reference Genes in Samples of Human Olfactory Epithelium

  • S. P. Kovalenko
  • N. S. Rudenko
  • A. S. Avdeeva
  • K. V. Danilenko
  • L. I. Aftanas

We analyzed variability of the expression of three reference genes in biopsy samples of the olfactory epithelium obtained from healthy volunteers. The expression of B2M, HPRT1, and CASC3 genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. The pairs of genes B2MHPRT1 and B2M—CASC3 were found to possess minimum individual variability of expression and can be reliable candidates for the reference genes in analysis of gene expression in neural cells.

Key Words

olfactory epithelium gene expression reference genes variability 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bustin SA. Absolute quantification of mRNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 2000;25(2):169-193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chapman JR, Waldenström J. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):doi:
  3. 3.
    Gadkar Vy, Filion M. New Developments in Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology. Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2014;16:1-6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Horiuchi Y, Kano S, Ishizuka K, Cascella NG, Ishii S, Talbot CC Jr, Jaffe AE, Okano H, Pevsner J, Colantuoni C, Sawa A. Olfactory cells via nasal biopsy reflect the developing brain in gene expression profiles: utility and limitation of the surrogate tissues in research for brain disorders. Neurosci. Res. 2013;77(4):247-250.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lavoie J, Gassó Astorga P, Segal-Gavish H, Wu YC, Chung Y, Cascella NG, Sawa A, Ishizuka K. The Olfactory Neural Epithelium As a Tool in Neuroscience. Trends Mol. Med. 2017;23(2):100-103.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lavoie J, Sawa A, Ishizuka K. Application of olfactory tissue and its neural progenitors to schizophrenia and psychiatric research. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry. 2017;30(3):176-183.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Narayan S, McLean C, Sawa A, Lin SY, Rai N, Hipolito MS, Cascella N, Nurnberger JJ Jr, Ishizuka K, Nwulia EA. Olfactory neurons obtained through nasal biopsy combined with lasercapture microdissection: a potential approach to study treatment response in mental disorders. J. Vis. Exp. 2014;(94):doi:
  8. 8.
    Nguyen LS, Lepleux M, Makhlouf M, Martin C, Fregeac J, Siquier-Pernet K, Philippe A, Feron F, Gepner B, Rougeulle C, Humeau Y, Colleaux L. Profiling olfactory stem cells from living patients identifies miRNAs relevant for autism pathophysiology. Mol. Autism. 2016;7. doi:
  9. 9.
    Sattler R, Ayukawa Y, Coddington L, Sawa A, Block D, Chipkin R, Rothstein JD. Human nasal olfactory epithelium as a dynamic marker for CNS therapy development. Exp. Neurol. 2011;232(2):203-211.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sun Y, Li Y, Luo D, Liao DJ. Pseudogenes as weaknesses of ACTB (Actb) and GAPDH (Gapdh) used as reference genes in reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions. PLoS One. 2012;7(8). doi:
  11. 11.
    Verbeurgt C, Wilkin F, Tarabichi M, Gregoire F, Dumont J.E, Chatelain P. Profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa. PLoS One. 2014;9(5). doi:

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. P. Kovalenko
    • 1
  • N. S. Rudenko
    • 1
  • A. S. Avdeeva
    • 1
  • K. V. Danilenko
    • 1
  • L. I. Aftanas
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental MedicineNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.Novosibirsk National Research UniversityNovosibirskRussia

Personalised recommendations