, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 99–102 | Cite as

Scientific Ontology

  • Johan GamperEmail author
Original Paper


The modal properties of the principle of the causal closure of the physical have traditionally been said to prevent anything outside the physical world from affecting the physical universe and vice versa. This idea has been shown to be relative to the definition of the principle (Gamper in Philosophia 45:631–636, 2017). A traditional definition prevents the one universe from affecting any other universe, but with a modified definition, e.g. (ibid.), the causal closure of the physical can be consistent with the possibility of one universe affecting the other universe. Gamper (2017) proved this modal property by implementing interfaces between universes. Interfaces are thus possible, but are they realistic? To answer this question, I propose a two-step process where the second step is scientific research. The first step, however, is to fill the gap between the principles or basic assumptions and science with a consistent theoretical framework that accommodates the modal properties of an ontology that matches the basic assumptions.


Scientific ontology Modality Philosophy of physics Philosophy of mind Dualism Causal closure Loophole causal closure 


  1. Gamper J (2017) On a loophole in causal closure. Philosophia 45:631–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kim J (1998) Mind in a physical world: an essay on the mind-body problem and mental causation. MIT Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Steinhart E (2009) More precisely: the math you need to do philosophy. Broadview Press, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Scientific OntologySubrosa KBVendelsöSweden

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