In this paper, we present a contract-based, decentralized planning approach for a team of autonomous unmanned surface vehicles (USV) to patrol and guard an asset in an environment with hostile boats and civilian traffic. The USVs in the team have to cooperatively deal with the uncertainty about which boats pose an actual threat and distribute themselves around the asset to optimize their guarding opportunities. The developed planner incorporates a contract-based algorithm for allocating tasks to the USVs through forward simulating the mission and assigning estimated utilities to candidate task allocation plans. The task allocation process uses a form of marginal cost-based contracting that allows decentralized, cooperative task negotiation among neighboring agents. The task allocation plans are realized through a corresponding set of low-level behaviors. In this paper, we demonstrate the planner using two mission scenarios. However, the planner is general enough to be used for a variety of scenarios with mission-specific tasks and behaviors. We provide detailed analysis of simulation results and discuss the impact of communication interruptions, unreliable sensor data, and simulation inaccuracies on the performance of the planner.
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This research has been supported by ONR N00014-10-1-0585, N00014-12-1-0494, N00014-12-1-0430, N00014-13-1-0597, and ARO W911NF-12-1-0471 and W911NF-11-1-0344 grants. The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect opinions of the sponsors.
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Raboin, E., Švec, P., Nau, D.S. et al. Model-predictive asset guarding by team of autonomous surface vehicles in environment with civilian boats. Auton Robot 38, 261–282 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10514-014-9409-9
- Decentralized planning
- Task allocation
- Unmanned vehicles
- Unmanned surface vehicles